1) In a monogamous culture, 90% of the adults are married. The average number of children per family is five and over-population is a threat. Programs to encourage birth-control have been ineffective. It has been suggested that this failure is due to these programs ignoring a tradition that values male children very highly, so that every parent wants to have at least one son. It is proposed that couples be encouraged to use birth-control measures after the birth of their first son. If this proposal is widely accepted in the culture, we may expect that:
A) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present.
C) the rate of population growth will remain the same, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
D) there will be no significant effect either on population growth or on gender balance.
E) the population will decline precipitously, because approximately half of all families will have only a single child.
2.The report released by the interior ministry states that within the past 5 years the national land-reclamation program has created a 19 percent increase in arable land within the country. If these figures are accurate, the program has been a huge success. Senator Cox, a distinguished mathematician and a woman of brilliance, maintains, however, that the reclamation program could not possibly have been successful. Clearly, therefore, the figures cited in the report cannot be accurate. The
argument above exhibits an erroneous pattern of reasoning most similar to that exhibited by which one of the following?
A) Albert's father claims that Albert does not know where the spare car keys are hidden. Yesterday however, Albert reported that he had discovered the spare car keys in the garage toolbox, so his father's claim cannot be true.
B) Gloria's drama teacher claims that her policy is to give each student the opportunity to act in at least one play during the year but, since Gloria, who attended every class, reports that she was not given such an opportunity the teacher's claim cannot be true.
C) Amos claims that he can hold his breath under water for a full hour. Dr. Treviso, a cardiopulmonary specialist, has stated that humans are physiologically incapable of holding their breath for even half that long; so Amos' claim cannot be true.
D) Evelyn reports that she got home before midnight. Robert, who always knows the time, insists that she did not. If Robert is right, Evelyn could not possibly have listened to the late news; since she admits not having listened to the late news, her report cannot be true.
E) Moira, after observing the finish of the 60-kilometer bicycle race, reports that Lee won with Adams a distant third. Lomas, a bicycle engineering expert, insists, however, that Lee could not have won a race in which Adams competed; so Moira's report cannot be true.
3.Some philosophers of science claim that no serious scientific theory can be tested experimentally without taking for granted
some other body of scientific beliefs, for we cannot interpret any experimental results without relying on such beliefs. If this is true, then which of the following conclusions seems most likely?
A) Any particular scientific theory can be consistently retained, even in the face of apparently incompatible evidence, if we are willing to give up certain other scientific beliefs.
B) Experimental evidence is really irrelevant to scientific theorizing.
C) Experimental evidence is more relevant to the testing of scientific theories than to their initial formulation.
D) Experimental evidence is more relevant to the initial formulation of scientific theories than to their testing.
E) The best scientific theories are those which are formulated in such a way as to be subject to conclusive experimental refutation.
4.Steve and JoAnne are both members of a certain club, though they are not speaking to each other. Cecily, the club president, is appointing members to the fundraising committee, but she has resolved that she will not appoint anyone without his or her explicit consent. Steve tells Cecily, 'I will not consent to appointment on that committee unless I know whether JoAnne is to be a member of it.' And JoAnne says, 'I will not consent to be a member of that committee unless I know whether Steve will be appointed to it.' If all three of these people stick by these resolutions, then:
A) Neither of them can be appointed to the committee.
B) The situation described in the scenario cannot arise, because it is inherently incoherent.
C) They must either both be appointed or both be left out.
D) The committee may finally have one of them, both of them, or neither of them as members.
E) Either one of them can be appointed, but not both
Guys explanation as well, if not for all options atleast for those which seem confusing
OA to follow