Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 31 Oct 2014, 16:33

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 05 Oct 2011
Posts: 45
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 16

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2012, 01:46
hello egmat,

Here's is one example I would wish if you could make some clarification of meaning on this
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
Kaplan GMAT Prep Discount CodesKnewton GMAT Discount CodesGMAT Pill GMAT Discount Codes
Expert Post
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [0], given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES THAT GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2012, 09:10
Expert's post
Great job at putting your analysis. Lets take each question one by one.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
Question 1

B) Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

My Interpretation: It says that in the Earthquake that happened last year buildings were destroyed that were built in violation of the City’s Building Code.

Since it uses Past Perfect Tense
1) Buildings constructed in violation of Building Code
2) Then Destroyed or Damaged in Earthquake

E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

My Interpretation is that this sentence literally says the same thing. Last Year in the Earthquake the buildings destroyed and damaged in the Earthquake were in violation of the building code. I feel the Past Perfect tense portrays the same thing. Maybe I am relying just on the tenses not modifiers to determine the sequence of events.


You are indeed correct in your assessment that you are not focusing enough on the modifiers and that you are relying only on the verb tenses. Let me prove this to you.

Your understanding of choice B is perfect. However there is a gap in your understanding of choice E. See it is very important to understand the role of each modifier in a sentence and this is where breaking your sentence down into its clauses helps. Lets see how:


Image

• Last year some of the buildings
o that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake
• had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

So as soon as you break this down into clauses you see that “last year” does not even appear in the clause that has “in the earthquake”. In fact now you can see clearly that “last year” really provides timing information about when the buildings were constructed.


Image

So per this sentence (choice E) –
Last year buildings were constructed in violation of the code.
And then these buildings were destroyed in the earthquake.

Now this is perfectly logical meaning. But this sentence is incorrect because it changes the original intended meaning of the sentence. The original sentence did not say that the buildings were constructed last year. Per the original choice, we only knew that the buildings were destroyed in the earthquake last year. Now these buildings could have been constructed last year before the earthquake or much before last year. We do not know this timing. But per choice E, we know for sure that these buildings were constructed last year. And this is where the problem is.


Image

Break the sentence into its clauses so that you can clearly understand what the modifiers modify.
I hope this clarifies your confusion. Let me know if you have any other questions.


Image
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Expert Post
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [0], given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES THAT GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2012, 09:31
Expert's post
gmatpunjabi wrote:
Question 2
A) Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today.

My Interpretation: In terms of grammar something about this question does not sound right. What I understand is Gall’s theory about mental function localized in different parts of the brain.

You are partially correct here. You only stated the theory – different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain. You do not state that this theory is widely accepted today. Note how in the original sentence, this is clearly stated.

Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
B) Gall's hypothesis of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today

My Interpretation: From what I see is that the hypothesis is about “of different mental functions” and that it is widely accepted today

Exactly right. But note carefully that this choice does not state what the hypothesis is. It just states that the hypothesis is regarding the different mental functions. By the way these different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain. But this choice fails to state what the hypothesis is.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
C) Gall's hypothesis that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today

My Interpretation: Looking at this choice doesn’t see a huge difference in meaning. It is like to me its saying the same thing exactly. I know it’s a difference of where that is placed but I cannot make out the difference in meaning.

Ok the difference here is that this choice states the hypothesis – the hypothesis is that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain.

Looking at these two questions that you have posted, I feel you are having some trouble understanding the modifiers. I think you should revise your modifier concepts and just see how by placing things differently you can imply different things. Lets take another example:

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.
Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.



Can you spot the difference in meaning of the above two sentences?
I look forward to your response!!

Payal
Image
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Expert Post
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [0], given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2012, 09:38
Expert's post
ruturajp wrote:
hello egmat,

Here's is one example I would wish if you could make some clarification of meaning on this
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of


Hi Ruturajp,
I will definitely provide my clarification but first I would like to see your analysis of this question and where exactly you have problems in understanding this question.
Looking forward to your response.
Thanks,
Payal

Image
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

1 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 23 Jul 2011
Posts: 200
Concentration: Finance, Technology
Schools: UCSD (D)
GMAT 1: 640 Q44 V34
GPA: 2.99
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 49 [1] , given: 66

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2012, 20:05
1
This post received
KUDOS
Thanks again for your help.

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I see within in this sentence is that there is an explicit comparison between “living in the city” and “living in countryside”. These two phrases basically are examples of perceptions. It goes on to say that living in the city perception is flawed.

Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I am starting to see now is that is a sort of modifier. I still can’t grasp the meaning completely, but I do see an error in the modifier placement of that. Its like the placement of that now changes city and I feel the meaning of the sentence is nonsensical. Its like the meaning shifts from the perception to the noun city instead. I have been staring at this 2nd question for 15 mins lol. I think I finally see it the comparison has shifted from perceptions to city and countryside. Honestly I have no idea lol.

Review Material: The Manhattan Sentence Correctionl does not really focus on how the Meaning Changes with Modifiers. Its more about what parts of speech modify other parts of speech. Do you have any suggestions as this is one of the last topics I am having trouble with?
Expert Post
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [0], given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2012, 07:45
Expert's post
A good question and a well formatted post. I like that. Kudos to you. I will respond to your post. But I want you to answer my question below first (remember I win if you learn :) ). This question is more of an inference question.

Which city does sentence 1 talk about? How does it differ from the city (referred to) in sentence 2?
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 23 Jul 2011
Posts: 200
Concentration: Finance, Technology
Schools: UCSD (D)
GMAT 1: 640 Q44 V34
GPA: 2.99
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 49 [0], given: 66

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 10 Jan 2012, 10:58
Sorry about the late post. Here is my response to your questions Payal and I have a few of more of my own.

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I see within in this sentence is that there is an explicit comparison between “living in the city” and “living in countryside”. These two phrases basically are examples of perceptions. It goes on to say that living in the city perception is flawed.

Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I am starting to see now is that is a sort of modifier. I still can’t grasp the meaning completely, but I do see an error in the modifier placement of that. Its like the placement of that now changes city and I feel the meaning of the sentence is nonsensical. Its like the meaning shifts from the perception to the noun city instead. I have been staring at this 2nd question for 15 mins lol. I think I finally see it the comparison has shifted from perceptions to city and countryside. Honestly I have no idea lol.

Review Material: The Manhattan Sentence Correctionl does not really focus on how the Meaning Changes with Modifiers. Its more about what parts of speech modify other parts of speech. Do you have any suggestions as this is one of the last topics I am having trouble with?
Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [1] , given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 11 Jan 2012, 06:47
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
gmatpunjabi wrote:
Sorry about the late post. Here is my response to your questions Payal and I have a few of more of my own.

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I see within in this sentence is that there is an explicit comparison between “living in the city” and “living in countryside”. These two phrases basically are examples of perceptions. It goes on to say that living in the city perception is flawed.

Image

Clause 1 - Mary’s perception that
Clause 2 - living in city is more expensive than living in countryside
Clause 1 (Contd.) - is flawed.

Now that we have broken this sentence down to its clauses, we can infer the meaning as follows:
What is flawed - the perception. (clause 1)
What is the perception - that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside (Clause 2 modifies perception)

My Analysis of YOUR Analysis - As you can see, our meaning analysis is vastly different. I do not think you have been able to understand the meaning correctly. And I can see what the problem is...Yes you cannot assign modifiers appropriately. But from your analysis of this sentence, I can sense that it is even more basic issue. You are not paying enough attention on understanding the sentence structure and that is why you are not able to understand the meaning appropriately. You picked out the comparison in the sentence. But you could not correctly mention what feature is being compared.

See for us non-natives, as we are building our understanding of long sentences, we should try to break the sentence into clauses and then do the meaning or error analysis. You really apply "divide and rule" policy since you are now tackling one clause at a time...I am sure if you had simplified the sentence as shown above, you would also have arrived at the correct meaning.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I am starting to see now is that is a sort of modifier. I still can’t grasp the meaning completely, but I do see an error in the modifier placement of that. Its like the placement of that now changes city and I feel the meaning of the sentence is nonsensical. Its like the meaning shifts from the perception to the noun city instead. I have been staring at this 2nd question for 15 mins lol. I think I finally see it the comparison has shifted from perceptions to city and countryside. Honestly I have no idea lol.

Image
Clause 1 - Mary’s perception of living in city
Clause 2 - that is more expensive than countryside
Clause 1 (contd.) - is flawed.

Now that we have broken this sentence down to its clauses, we can infer the meaning as follows:
What is flawed - perception of living in city (Note that this is different from sentence 1)
What is the perception – not stated (Note that sentence 1 stated what is the perception)
What else is stated – city is more expensive than countryside (Note that sentence 1 did not say anything about city being more expensive)

My Analysis of YOUR Analysis - For sentence 2, you were headed in the right direction. You were able to point out that "that" modifies city. However, I can assure you that if you had split the sentence into smaller parts, you would have been more confident in your analysis of this sentence and you would not have stared at the sentence for 15 minutes :)

gmatpunjabi wrote:
Review Material: The Manhattan Sentence Correctionl does not really focus on how the Meaning Changes with Modifiers. Its more about what parts of speech modify other parts of speech. Do you have any suggestions as this is one of the last topics I am having trouble with?


Image
1: Understanding meaning becomes alot easier if the sentence is broken down into clauses. Its as if a complex puzzle becomes simplified all of a sudden. The interlinks between various parts of the sentence become more clear.
2: You state that modifiers is an issue that you are facing. However, in your analysis of sentence 1, you made an error in stating the correct comparison. I think you do spend the efforts in understanding the meaning and your grammatically concepts are also sound. What you lack is the approach that is especially designed for non-natives. Simplify the sentence into its clauses and then do your analysis...
3: Where to practice from - e-GMAT SC course is based on these principles. For each sentence that we analyze, we break it down into its individual clauses. If you would like to see this in action, try out the free trial of both e-GMAT SC course and e-GMAT OGVR2 solutions.

Hope this helps.
Payal
Image
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [1] , given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2012, 20:13
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Thanks guys for the overwhelming response. I just want to notify that we also have a free audio visual concept in our course. Just log in to your e-GMAT account and review the concept. The image below shows where the concept is listed.

Image
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Manager
Manager
avatar
Status: MBA Aspirant
Joined: 12 Jun 2010
Posts: 178
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, International Business
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 22 [0], given: 1

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 19 Jan 2012, 21:40
Thanks for the useful post :)
Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [1] , given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 20 Jan 2012, 05:21
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
I am glad you liked it. We will be posting other such topics in the near future.
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 23 Jul 2011
Posts: 200
Concentration: Finance, Technology
Schools: UCSD (D)
GMAT 1: 640 Q44 V34
GPA: 2.99
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 49 [0], given: 66

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 22 Jan 2012, 11:29
I just wanted to express my thanks to egmat and Payal. The information you provided in this article along with the free videos and Answers you all provided to my questions has given me the foundations to slowly pickup the slight changes in meaning in GMAT questions. Again Thank you for the help. I say it loud and clear if you need help with SC GOTO EGMAT!!!
Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [1] , given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 26 Jan 2012, 16:49
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Thank you everyone once again. Your success and appreciation make our day and motivates us to work harder. Ultimately our goal is to ensure that non natives ace the verbal portion of the exam and enjoy while doing the same.
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 21 Nov 2011
Posts: 22
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 19 [0], given: 8

Reviews Badge
Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 15 Feb 2012, 11:08
Hi guys, Thank you for this document. Will you guys be adding any more questions. I really found the examples and the exercise questions excellent for practice.
Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [1] , given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2012, 15:29
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
Thanks so much for all the kudos. We will soon be adding some more practice problems to this document

-Cheers

Rajat
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 07 Mar 2012
Posts: 11
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V34
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 1

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2012, 04:10
+1
Great post
Was looking for a thoroughly explained and detailed strategy and you provided it.
thks
deserves much more than the +1.
P.s. my first kudos goes to you :)
_________________

NO! I'm not a Priest. Don't ask for blessings...

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 21 Nov 2011
Posts: 22
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 19 [0], given: 8

Reviews Badge
Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2012, 21:58
Awesome document. Thank you so much for this resource.
Expert Post
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [0], given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 25 Jun 2012, 12:01
Expert's post
Thanks guys. We have posted a fresh set of questions with video solutions. Just log in to your e-GMAT account. We will be releasing another set of 10 questions tomorrow. Happy practicing.

-Rajat Sadana
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 28 Jul 2011
Posts: 582
Location: United States
Concentration: International Business, General Management
GPA: 3.86
WE: Accounting (Commercial Banking)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 57 [1] , given: 16

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 26 Jun 2012, 22:04
1
This post received
KUDOS
egmat wrote:
I am glad you liked it. We will be posting other such topics in the near future.


Hi Egmat,

I couldn't find the above mentioned file on the webpage, can you please help in finding that document? Please find the screenshot of the page.

Regards
Srinath
Attachments

Egmat.jpg
Egmat.jpg [ 98.64 KiB | Viewed 2045 times ]


_________________

+1 Kudos If found helpful..

Expert Post
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1796
Followers: 1305

Kudos [?]: 3711 [0], given: 189

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version [#permalink] New post 27 Jun 2012, 05:49
Expert's post
Dear Koetla,

Thanks for your email. We have launched an in-depth series for Meaning based questions. Please go to the bottom of the course and see the files. You would notice three brand new files there - 1 belonging to a session and the other two being application files. Also wait for our announcement (only if you are on our mailing list)

Image
_________________

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WeT9_Wr0DlI&feature=youtu.be

Re: 5 STRATEGIES GMAT USES TO DISTORT MEANING - Final Version   [#permalink] 27 Jun 2012, 05:49
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
Manhattan GMAT Complete Strategy Guide Set 5th Edition (NYC) ada717 1 08 Apr 2013, 05:45
Selling Brand New Manhattan GMAT 5th Edition Strategy Books RaquelGarcia 4 28 Feb 2013, 13:50
2 Experts publish their posts in the topic GMAT in 5 Weeks - Strategy AbhiJ 4 04 Nov 2011, 03:47
What is the best strategy to prepare for GMAT in 1.5 months? gigabyte 4 13 Aug 2011, 07:59
Display posts from previous: Sort by

5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3    Next  [ 56 posts ] 



GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.