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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink] New post 31 Aug 2004, 23:51
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2007, 16:24
OK.

This is a classic example of Past Perfect tense. Municipalities were allowed to dump phosphates into the Great Lakes prior to the agreement that occured in the past, (1972). Therefore, we use past tense (agreement reduced) in the first half of the sentence, and past perfect (had been allowed) in the second half.

Hence, there is nothing wrong with the original sentence.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2007, 16:46
nervousgmat wrote:
OK.

This is a classic example of Past Perfect tense. Municipalities were allowed to dump phosphates into the Great Lakes prior to the agreement that occured in the past, (1972). Therefore, we use past tense (agreement reduced) in the first half of the sentence, and past perfect (had been allowed) in the second half.

Hence, there is nothing wrong with the original sentence.


the second verb would be past perfect if the action werent true or didnt continue into the present.
However it does continue into the present , so D is the answer
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2007, 17:34
D....the municipalities are still doing the dumping so the agreement regulates what they ARE allowed to dump...
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 [#permalink] New post 28 Feb 2007, 19:05
CookieMonster wrote:
nervousgmat wrote:
OK.

This is a classic example of Past Perfect tense. Municipalities were allowed to dump phosphates into the Great Lakes prior to the agreement that occured in the past, (1972). Therefore, we use past tense (agreement reduced) in the first half of the sentence, and past perfect (had been allowed) in the second half.

Hence, there is nothing wrong with the original sentence.


the second verb would be past perfect if the action werent true or didnt continue into the present.
However it does continue into the present , so D is the answer


Cookiemonster, you are right. The action does continue into the present, and the answer should be D. Nitinneha, where did you get the answer from? It looks like D, not A should be a correct answer.
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 [#permalink] New post 01 Mar 2007, 21:35
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic ... 090cf05a77

The OA is A.

Even i feel that it should be D.
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 [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2007, 06:34
CookieMonster wrote:
sidbidus wrote:
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?p=112952&highlight=&sid=28cd307a8b7eb1f075aa2b090cf05a77

The OA is A.

Even i feel that it should be D.


No, the correct answer is D.


Well, there is nothing in the sentence that indicates the agreement is still valid today.

The sentence is about the agreement in 1972, which is already the past.
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 [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2007, 06:42
faifai0714 wrote:
CookieMonster wrote:
sidbidus wrote:
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?p=112952&highlight=&sid=28cd307a8b7eb1f075aa2b090cf05a77

The OA is A.

Even i feel that it should be D.


No, the correct answer is D.


Well, there is nothing in the sentence that indicates the agreement is still valid today.

The sentence is about the agreement in 1972, which is already the past.



fine then, past perfert verbs happen before some event in the past.
Past perfect verbs do not continue past (or remain true) after the date of the simple past action.

The purpose of the agreement in the stimulus is to change some policy.
If the municipalities did not dump any phosphates into the lake after the date of the agreement, what would be the purpose of the agreement??
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 [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2007, 08:08
hmmm I always thought this one was D as well - I will look in the OG tonight - I believe the reasoning cookiemonster stated is correct but maybe we are both wrong.
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 [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2007, 15:43
I looked in the OG 11th Edition, and the asnwer is D
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States [#permalink] New post 13 May 2007, 13:54
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
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 [#permalink] New post 13 May 2007, 20:24
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

I understand that B and C are wrong for using "phosphate amount". E is wrong for using "allowed for dumping".

Had D used "were" instead of "are", would A still be the best answer?
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 [#permalink] New post 14 May 2007, 02:31
I think that the answer D is the best.


I understand A as if municipalities were no more able to dump the phosphates into the Great Lakes before the agreement.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 May 2007, 18:22
Another D.

Past Perfect "had been" should not be used here.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 May 2007, 21:12
D is the right ans. past perfect had been should not be used and other choices have obvious flaws.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 May 2007, 21:38
D it is
agreement happened in past so reduced is correct usage
it restricts now so 'are allowed to' is correct

fyi, OG 11, Q62
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 [#permalink] New post 15 May 2007, 20:07
OA is A
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 [#permalink] New post 16 May 2007, 01:35
This example convinced me not to trust "alternative" sources like 1000 SC where A is correct answer, while OG clearly states that OA is D.

Last edited by AdrianG on 16 May 2007, 01:51, edited 1 time in total.
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 [#permalink] New post 16 May 2007, 08:37
OG states the explanation as.... "since the law was passed in the past & dumping continues in the present"............

if we take this into consideration..........then definitly D.........
though my ans was A :oops:

BUT..... how can we assume anything (that muncipalities r still dumping) on the GMAT?
it is quite possible that after the law was passed, muncipalities never ever dumped anything into lakes................

how r v supposed to guess????? can anyone pls enlighten??
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 [#permalink] New post 16 May 2007, 08:47
My answer is A

can some one explain why D ?? why should we take "are allowed to"
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2007, 19:11
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

A. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
B. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been dumping
C. reduces the amount of phosphates that municipalities have been allowed to dump
D. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
E. reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Last edited by ahneil on 19 Jun 2007, 12:30, edited 2 times in total.
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States   [#permalink] 18 Jun 2007, 19:11
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