A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 20 Jan 2017, 12:40

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 18 Jun 2004
Posts: 103
Location: san jose , CA
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 73 [3] , given: 0

### Show Tags

31 Aug 2004, 23:51
3
KUDOS
60
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

53% (01:43) correct 47% (00:56) wrong based on 3580 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
New!
Manager
Joined: 28 Jul 2004
Posts: 179
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 03:30
A looks fine to me. The reduction in the 'amount of phosphates' from what it was allowed before the agreement.

A talks clear that the amount which was allowed before the agreement was reduced in the agreement.
Manager
Joined: 02 Apr 2004
Posts: 224
Location: Utrecht
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 11:27
I choose A.

Before the agreement companies were dumping already and this will continue after the agreement. Not sure what tense to call this: past perfect??

Correct me if I am wrong.

Regards,

Alex
Director
Joined: 05 May 2004
Posts: 577
Location: San Jose, CA
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 59 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 11:49
Will go with A
there are 2 time buckets
1. 1972
1972 is past, hence reduced is correct
2. before 1972
municipalities' dumping procedure before 1972 requires past perfect
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Jul 2004
Posts: 273
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 10 [1] , given: 0

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 14:58
1
KUDOS
I don't believe past perfect is right in this case. I'll go for D.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 5062
Location: Singapore
Followers: 30

Kudos [?]: 358 [3] , given: 0

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 17:00
3
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
- Had been allowed means before this agreemet municpalities were dumping, after the agreement reduced the amount that are dumped.

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
- Had been dumping is the wrong tense. It means it happened in the past and still happening at the point after the agreement (even though it may not be happening now)

(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
- reduces is the wrong tense

(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
- This statement did nothing to suggest that municapalilties were dumping anything and if so, the point of the agreement was more of a early kill (reduce the amount in case municipalities decided to start dumping waste)

(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
- reduces is the wrong tense

(A) is a better choice
VP
Joined: 13 Jun 2004
Posts: 1118
Location: London, UK
Schools: Tuck'08
Followers: 7

Kudos [?]: 45 [1] , given: 0

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 21:52
1
KUDOS
A for me.

However I understand people who chose D, but I am not sure this is the best way in ETS rules, I think it's better to stick with tense concordance...even if the answer D sounds ok for my ears.
VP
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1440
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 37 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 08:41
4. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Nov 2004
Posts: 458
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 88 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 09:34
A it is. municipals were dumping until 1972, so past perfect tense is correct.
Intern
Joined: 17 Feb 2005
Posts: 28
Location: SE Michigan
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 33 [24] , given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 12:25
24
KUDOS
9
This post was
BOOKMARKED
I picked D as it better follows the intent of the sentence...

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities are allowed to dump"....that the agreement refers to dumping that is ongoing is best expressed here.

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump" the agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped, right?
Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 863
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 198 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 13:11
I go for (A)

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
past perfect mean "more past", so "allow" was happened before"reduce"

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
"that municipalities had been dumping" needs to modify "phosphate", not "amount". They dont dump "amount", but they dump the chemical.

(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
same as above

(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
"are" in present while the sentence is in past tense.

(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
allow to is idiomatic
SVP
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2243
Followers: 16

Kudos [?]: 325 [1] , given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 13:25
1
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
C and E are easily eliminated because 1972 is in the past. "the phosphate amount" in B is wrong. Also nobody can reduce the amount that somebody has already been dumping. Allowed to dump is another matter.

It is hard to choose from A and D. In D it seems that the present tense is not consistent with the past tense in the main clause. However, in A the past perfect tense seems to imply that the agreement reduced the amount that were allowed before the agreement, which is not true. I would almost say that the correct way should be a simply past tense, but it is not included in the answers. I think D is the lesser evil since well municipalities are still allowed to dump today aren't they not?
Manager
Joined: 15 Feb 2005
Posts: 246
Location: Rockville
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 8 [1] , given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 13:36
1
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
I think it is D there was a similar sort of question on the forum two weeks back i shall look and post the link.
remember that the munciplaities dumping phosphates in the lake is not a thing of the past , nothing is explicit about it so assume it is still going on.
Maybe i am wrong
but on OA id have to choose D
VP
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1440
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 37 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 13:55
can't we take the sentence as "the municipalities are still not allowed" i.e. process still happens ? OA is "A"....no OE, but I am not convinced with the OA, can anyone expl why the above assumption is wrong ?
Director
Joined: 04 Jul 2004
Posts: 904
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 51 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

10 Mar 2005, 16:48
banerjeea_98 wrote:
can't we take the sentence as "the municipalities are still not allowed" i.e. process still happens ? OA is "A"....no OE, but I am not convinced with the OA, can anyone expl why the above assumption is wrong ?

It has to be (A). How can you tell that agreement is still valid today(present tense)?
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Oct 2003
Posts: 353
Location: Manhattan
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2005, 19:22
HongHu wrote:
C and E are easily eliminated because 1972 is in the past. "the phosphate amount" in B is wrong. Also nobody can reduce the amount that somebody has already been dumping. Allowed to dump is another matter.

It is hard to choose from A and D. In D it seems that the present tense is not consistent with the past tense in the main clause. However, in A the past perfect tense seems to imply that the agreement reduced the amount that were allowed before the agreement, which is not true. I would almost say that the correct way should be a simply past tense, but it is not included in the answers. I think D is the lesser evil since well municipalities are still allowed to dump today aren't they not?

Regardless of your point on D, 'municipalities are allowed to dump' in this context is wrong due to present tense. They had been allowed to dump x tonns of whatever. Now the amount is different. Therefore, the previous amount must have a verbal agreement that's in the past tense. I'm no verbal guru, but I think the right answer is A.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 5062
Location: Singapore
Followers: 30

Kudos [?]: 358 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2005, 21:15
The agreement was made in the past, so past tense is required.
(C), (E) are out. We're left with (A), (B), and (D).
(B) is out. 'amount' should stick close to reduce since you can't reduce 'phosphate'
Between (A) and (D), (A) is the better chioce. In a time-line, 'agreement' comes later than 'had been allowed to dump'. You will need a past perfect tense in (A) to describe what the municipalities had been allowed, and the past tense to describe the new agreement.

A it is.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 5062
Location: Singapore
Followers: 30

Kudos [?]: 358 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2005, 21:19
(D) is out. It's not so much a question of present tense vs past tense. You have to realise that you are dealing with two issues, occuring at different time.

When you have two such actions, the thing that should immediately come to your mind is perfect tense ! Only the perfect tense allow for the writer to clearly phrase which action comes first, and which action comes later.
Manager
Joined: 03 Nov 2004
Posts: 190
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 14 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

24 Apr 2005, 09:45
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States (reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump) into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
Director
Joined: 01 Feb 2003
Posts: 851
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 100 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

24 Apr 2005, 09:50
A it is

past tense - reduced => what the 1972 agreement did

past perfect - had been => what the situation was before the agreement
24 Apr 2005, 09:50

Go to page    1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11  ...  21    Next  [ 416 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States 0 13 Oct 2008, 10:09
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States 0 25 Oct 2007, 14:38
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States 0 30 Dec 2012, 09:05
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States 0 16 May 2007, 08:47
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States 0 02 Mar 2007, 15:43
Display posts from previous: Sort by