A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 19 Jan 2017, 05:39

# LIVE NOW:

Chat with Admission Manager and Current Student of NUS SIngapore - Join Chat Room to Participate.

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority

 new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics
Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Joined: 19 Apr 2011
Posts: 289
Schools: Booth,NUS,St.Gallon
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 282 [10] , given: 51

A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2013, 09:32
10
KUDOS
85
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

26% (02:15) correct 74% (01:30) wrong based on 3316 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
you can ask an expert
New!
Senior Manager
Joined: 19 Apr 2011
Posts: 289
Schools: Booth,NUS,St.Gallon
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 282 [2] , given: 51

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2013, 09:38
2
KUDOS
The only difference between D and E is the comma before "and".
When there are more than one parallel list:1.small and old 2.that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
It is necessary to use a comma to distinguish between the the two lists right ? If so the comma before and is necessary. Experts please correct me if i am wrong. Thanks in advance.
_________________

+1 if you like my explanation .Thanks

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1996
Followers: 2081

Kudos [?]: 7149 [58] , given: 267

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2013, 22:19
58
KUDOS
Expert's post
53
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Hi there,
In a parallel list, comma is used before the parallel marker or the connector that joins all the entities in the list when there are more than two entities in a list. For example:
• Sri love apples and mangoes.
• Sri loves apples, mangoes, and grapes.

Since there are only two entities in the first sentence, we don't need comma before "and". But since there are three entities in the list in the second sentence, we need comma before "and".

In the given question, there are two lists. The second list resides in the first list. However, both the lists have only two entities.
• Entities in the main list - "are relatively small and old" (are) located in central cities.
• Entities in the sub-list - small and old.

This means that we don't need comma before any of the "and" because they join only two entities in the list. You can study other official sentences for this usage of comma.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Senior Manager
Joined: 19 Apr 2011
Posts: 289
Schools: Booth,NUS,St.Gallon
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 282 [0], given: 51

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2013, 23:06
Thanks a ton Shraddha for answering my query. Kudos for you !!
One more query regarding the question-will the usage of comma alter the meaning in option E. If so how does it alter the meaning ?
Thanks
_________________

+1 if you like my explanation .Thanks

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1996
Followers: 2081

Kudos [?]: 7149 [0], given: 267

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2013, 23:17
Hi there,

I don't think usage of comma changes the meaning in choice E. It's just that this usage of comma is incorrect. Use of "and" between "small" and "old" makes it clear that here we have a list already. This means that the first main list has only two entities, and hence, there should not be any comma before "and". But there is meaning change in choice E.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Status: Joining Cranfield Sep 2014
Joined: 01 Sep 2012
Posts: 65
Concentration: Technology, General Management
GMAT 1: 530 Q50 V14
GMAT 2: 630 Q48 V29
WE: Engineering (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 30 [0], given: 60

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 May 2013, 06:53
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
egmat wrote:
Hi there,
In a parallel list, comma is used before the parallel marker or the connector that joins all the entities in the list when there are more than two entities in a list. For example:
• Sri love apples and mangoes.
• Sri loves apples, mangoes, and grapes.

Since there are only two entities in the first sentence, we don't need comma before "and". But since there are three entities in the list in the second sentence, we need comma before "and".

In the given question, there are two lists. The second list resides in the first list. However, both the lists have only two entities.
• Entities in the main list - "are relatively small and old" (are) located in central cities.
• Entities in the sub-list - small and old.

This means that we don't need comma before any of the "and" because they join only two entities in the list. You can study other official sentences for this usage of comma.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks - this is very basic and useful concept.
Manager
Joined: 15 Mar 2012
Posts: 60
Location: United States
Concentration: Marketing, Strategy
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 18 [0], given: 19

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 May 2013, 08:56
Hi,

What is the problem with C? "which" clause is modifing the attached homes and then continues to say that both are located in central cities.

MV
_________________

MV
"Better to fight for something than live for nothing.” ― George S. Patton Jr

Manager
Joined: 15 Mar 2012
Posts: 60
Location: United States
Concentration: Marketing, Strategy
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 18 [0], given: 19

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 May 2013, 09:00
By the way, I have read that GMAT doesnt have a "make or break" SC question involving a comma, as is the case with D and E. Please, correct me if Im wrong.

MV
_________________

MV
"Better to fight for something than live for nothing.” ― George S. Patton Jr

Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Nov 2012
Posts: 346
Schools: LBS '14 (A)
GMAT 1: 770 Q48 V48
Followers: 191

Kudos [?]: 366 [22] , given: 4

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 May 2013, 10:10
22
KUDOS
27
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Hi,

'Which' vs 'that' is a core SC concept that you need to learn properly. Any decent SC book will do this.

[i]Which - is used to describe something that you've already defined.

That - is used to narrow down a list of things that is undefined.

For example:
Galileo's 4th theory (there is only 1 4th theory) which (no need to define) talks about xyx

Galileos' theory (many theorys) that (need to define) talks about xyz[/i}

Here, we need to define, so we use that

James
_________________

Former GMAT Pill student, now on staff. Used GMATPILL OG 12 and nothing else: 770 (48,48) & 6.0

... and more

Senior Manager
Joined: 02 Mar 2012
Posts: 374
Schools: Schulich '16
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 63 [0], given: 4

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Jul 2013, 06:54
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
hi,
i had a silly doubt.

the second sentence i guess can stand on its own .So dont we use semi colon here.it has a subject and a verb.
Director
Joined: 14 Dec 2012
Posts: 842
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Operations
GMAT 1: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.6
Followers: 59

Kudos [?]: 1288 [9] , given: 197

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Jul 2013, 07:09
9
KUDOS
12
This post was
BOOKMARKED
hsbinfy wrote:
hi,
i had a silly doubt.

the second sentence i guess can stand on its own .So dont we use semi colon here.it has a subject and a verb.

Hi,

you are perfectly fine in thinking so....they are two ICs.
but options with semicolon are not gramatically correct.
moreover 2 ICs can be connected by a COLON(:)..provided that the later clause must explains the preceeding clause.

below is an excerpt of MANHATTAN SC guide:

==>The colon (:) provides further explanation for what comes before it. For example, you can
use a colon to equate a list with its components. You should be able to insert the word
namely or the phrase that is after the colon.
What comes before the colon must be able to stand alone as a sentence. What comes after
the colon does not have to be able to stand alone.

You can put a main clause after a colon as well. The key is that this clause must explain
what precedes the colon-
perhaps the entire preceding clause.

example: On January 1, 2000, the national mood was completely different from
what it would become just a few years later: at the turn of the century,
given a seemingly unstoppable stock market and a seemingly peaceful
world, the country was content.

The words after the colon, at the turn of the century. " was content, can stand alone as a sentence.
They serve to explain the entire clause that comes before the colon (a clause that
asserts an upcoming change in the national mood, as of the first of the year 2000).

Do not confuse the semicolon (;) with the colon (:). The semicolon connects two related
independent clauses, but the second does not necessarily explain the first. In contrast, the
colon always connects a sentence with a further explanation.

hope it helps
_________________

When you want to succeed as bad as you want to breathe ...then you will be successfull....

GIVE VALUE TO OFFICIAL QUESTIONS...

GMAT RCs VOCABULARY LIST: http://gmatclub.com/forum/vocabulary-list-for-gmat-reading-comprehension-155228.html
learn AWA writing techniques while watching video : http://www.gmatprepnow.com/module/gmat-analytical-writing-assessment

Manager
Joined: 14 Nov 2011
Posts: 149
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.61
WE: Consulting (Manufacturing)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 15 [1] , given: 103

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Jul 2013, 22:12
1
KUDOS
saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

a)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
b)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
c)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
e)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.

Something not quite write in even D:

d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.

how this makes sense? I think it should be:
d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old located in central cities.

second and not needed here, it is misleading.
Director
Joined: 14 Dec 2012
Posts: 842
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Operations
GMAT 1: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.6
Followers: 59

Kudos [?]: 1288 [0], given: 197

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Jul 2013, 22:26
cumulonimbus wrote:
saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

a)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
b)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
c)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
e)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.

Something not quite write in even D:

d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.

how this makes sense? I think it should be:
d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old located in central cities.

second and not needed here, it is misleading.

OPTION D is PERFECTLY RIGHT.
ACTUALLY D is like this:

difficult: It has been more common for A that are relatively B and C.

here:
A=SOME TOWNHOUSES AND OTHER ATTACHED HOMES====>SEE THIS IS A COMPOND SUBJECT AND HENCE PLURAL ...AND THIS IS WHY ARE IS USED AFTER THAT.
B=SMALL AND OLD
C= LOCATED IN CENTRAL CITIES
B and C are the characterstics of A.
OLD LOCATED IN CITIES doesnt makes sense....
hope it helps.
_________________

When you want to succeed as bad as you want to breathe ...then you will be successfull....

GIVE VALUE TO OFFICIAL QUESTIONS...

GMAT RCs VOCABULARY LIST: http://gmatclub.com/forum/vocabulary-list-for-gmat-reading-comprehension-155228.html
learn AWA writing techniques while watching video : http://www.gmatprepnow.com/module/gmat-analytical-writing-assessment

Manager
Joined: 14 Nov 2011
Posts: 149
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.61
WE: Consulting (Manufacturing)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 103

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Jul 2013, 18:39
shaileshmishra wrote:
cumulonimbus wrote:
saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

a)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
b)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
c)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
e)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.

Something not quite write in even D:

d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.

how this makes sense? I think it should be:
d)difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old located in central cities.

second and not needed here, it is misleading.

OPTION D is PERFECTLY RIGHT.
ACTUALLY D is like this:

difficult: It has been more common for A that are relatively B and C.

here:
A=SOME TOWNHOUSES AND OTHER ATTACHED HOMES====>SEE THIS IS A COMPOND SUBJECT AND HENCE PLURAL ...AND THIS IS WHY ARE IS USED AFTER THAT.
B=SMALL AND OLD
C= LOCATED IN CENTRAL CITIES
B and C are the characterstics of A.
OLD LOCATED IN CITIES doesnt makes sense....
hope it helps.

Ok - as per this structure - difficult: It has been more common for A that are relatively B and C.
B and C need to be parallel.
My point is - small and old is NOT parallel to located in central cities.
neither is 'that are relatively small and old' parallel to 'located in central cities'

perhaps 'that are relatively small and old' is parallel to 'that are located in central cities'
Director
Joined: 14 Dec 2012
Posts: 842
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Operations
GMAT 1: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.6
Followers: 59

Kudos [?]: 1288 [0], given: 197

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Jul 2013, 19:28
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
cumulonimbus wrote:

OPTION D is PERFECTLY RIGHT.
ACTUALLY D is like this:

difficult: It has been more common for A that are relatively B and C.

here:
A=SOME TOWNHOUSES AND OTHER ATTACHED HOMES====>SEE THIS IS A COMPOND SUBJECT AND HENCE PLURAL ...AND THIS IS WHY ARE IS USED AFTER THAT.
B=SMALL AND OLD
C= LOCATED IN CENTRAL CITIES
B and C are the characterstics of A.
OLD LOCATED IN CITIES doesnt makes sense....
hope it helps.

Ok - as per this structure - difficult: It has been more common for A that are relatively B and C.
B and C need to be parallel.
My point is - small and old is NOT parallel to located in central cities.
neither is 'that are relatively small and old' parallel to 'located in central cities'

perhaps 'that are relatively small and old' is parallel to 'that are located in central cities'[/quote]

hi,
IMO B and C are parallel there is no parallel......
see the condition required for the things to be parallel

1. Identify Lists
 Presence of certain words called markers indicate presence of a list.
– Words such as: and, or, but, either..or, not..but, rather than, from..to, both..and
– Certain verbs that show similarity such as: is, represents, appears
Note: This is not an exhaustive list. There may be more words that acts as markers.
2. Check Validity of Lists
 All elements of the list must talk about a common topic/theme/idea.
3. Check Correctness (or parallelism) of Lists
 All elements of list must maintain same structure
 i.e. Order of appearance of words must be the same
 Each element of list must play same role.

here all three condition is satisfied.
===>parallelism marker is there.
===>talking about same thing.
===>playing same role:they are telling cgaracterstics of something.

it doesnt matters that if they dont appear similar in wordings then they are not parallel.

hope it helps.
_________________

When you want to succeed as bad as you want to breathe ...then you will be successfull....

GIVE VALUE TO OFFICIAL QUESTIONS...

GMAT RCs VOCABULARY LIST: http://gmatclub.com/forum/vocabulary-list-for-gmat-reading-comprehension-155228.html
learn AWA writing techniques while watching video : http://www.gmatprepnow.com/module/gmat-analytical-writing-assessment

Senior Manager
Joined: 28 Dec 2010
Posts: 334
Location: India
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 201 [0], given: 33

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 Jul 2013, 09:19
egmat wrote:
Hi there,

I don't think usage of comma changes the meaning in choice E. It's just that this usage of comma is incorrect. Use of "and" between "small" and "old" makes it clear that here we have a list already. This means that the first main list has only two entities, and hence, there should not be any comma before "and". But there is meaning change in choice E.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Shraddha, what in your opinion makes C wrong?
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 1996
Followers: 2081

Kudos [?]: 7149 [0], given: 267

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2013, 05:28
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
vibhav wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi there,

I don't think usage of comma changes the meaning in choice E. It's just that this usage of comma is incorrect. Use of "and" between "small" and "old" makes it clear that here we have a list already. This means that the first main list has only two entities, and hence, there should not be any comma before "and". But there is meaning change in choice E.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Shraddha, what in your opinion makes C wrong?

Hi Vaibhav,

We can discard choice C because here "which are relatively small and odd" is placed between two comma pairs. Such placement makes this clause non-essential. However, from the context of the sentence, we know that this clause is essential because conversion from ownership to rental properties has been more common for the "relatively small and odd houses".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Verbal Forum Moderator
Status: Getting strong now, I'm so strong now!!!
Affiliations: National Institute of Technology, Durgapur
Joined: 04 Jun 2013
Posts: 638
Location: India
GPA: 3.32
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 98

Kudos [?]: 536 [0], given: 80

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Jul 2013, 06:53
In c, we have a which, which forms a non-essential modifier. So c is incorrect
_________________

Regards,

S

Consider +1 KUDOS if you find this post useful

Intern
Joined: 06 Apr 2012
Posts: 12
Location: United States
Concentration: Technology, Strategy
Schools: Anderson '15
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V40
GPA: 3.88
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 7 [1] , given: 5

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Jul 2013, 18:03
1
KUDOS
D. A comma before 'and' requires the clause after 'and' to start with 'that'. For instance, "homes that are relatively small and old, and that are located in central cities"
Intern
Joined: 16 Mar 2013
Posts: 24
Location: United States
Concentration: International Business, Entrepreneurship
Schools: NTU '15 (S)
GPA: 3.08
WE: Marketing (Manufacturing)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 10 [0], given: 6

Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Aug 2013, 02:41
egmat wrote:
vibhav wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi there,

I don't think usage of comma changes the meaning in choice E. It's just that this usage of comma is incorrect. Use of "and" between "small" and "old" makes it clear that here we have a list already. This means that the first main list has only two entities, and hence, there should not be any comma before "and". But there is meaning change in choice E.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Shraddha, what in your opinion makes C wrong?

Hi Vaibhav,

We can discard choice C because here "which are relatively small and odd" is placed between two comma pairs. Such placement makes this clause non-essential. However, from the context of the sentence, we know that this clause is essential because conversion from ownership to rental properties has been more common for the "relatively small and odd houses".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I dont get why B is wrong ???? B is similar to D except for the length .
Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority   [#permalink] 31 Aug 2013, 02:41

Go to page    1   2   3    Next  [ 49 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
2 #Top150 SC: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority 7 09 Dec 2015, 21:33
6 #Top150 SC: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority 6 24 Sep 2015, 05:57
3 A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded tha 5 28 May 2015, 06:04
5 A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority 3 17 Mar 2015, 05:17
12 A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority 7 04 Sep 2013, 12:05
Display posts from previous: Sort by

# A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority

 new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.