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A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical

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A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2012, 06:17
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A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical students. In the US., the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant every year even though far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now than were doing so at the height of the suntan craze 20yrs ago

each of the following,if true could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer each year despite the decrease in intentional exposure to UV sunlight EXCEPT:

a) bcause of decreasing levels of ozone in the upper atmosphere,more people are now exposed accidently to excessive UV sunlight
b) people who continue to intentionally expose themselves to UV sunlight are absorbing larger doses of harmful radiation than the average suntanner did in the past
c) levels of UV radiation from sources other than sunlight are increasing every year
d) while fewer women are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight,the number of men doing so has increased significantly





Can someone explain why B is wrong?
My logic is,
Say
earlier there were
Total number of people = 100 ( 60 intentionally exposing +40 other reasons ).

Now
Total number of people =100 ( 20 intentionally exposing +80 other reasons )

So ,now these 20 people can expose as much they can, but they cannot effect the total number.
Atleast they can not increase the total number.
So, Why B is wrong, when it is giving us information about intensity of exposure.
And cancer rate is no where in ques. Argument is only about total number of cases.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: A career in dermatology Kaplan 800 [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2012, 07:07
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Look at [B] from a mathematical point of view - for example in DS questions when we are talking about a unique value of X, and the equation is quadratic, you would know that X could take 2 values so you cannot find a unique X.

Similarly here, when it qualifies people {who intentionally continue to expose themselves to UV sunlight and thus absorb larger doses of harmful radiation than the average suntanner did in the past} - You do not know what was the number of people doing it in past and what is the number of people doing that intentional exposure today.

So when the question asks which of these if true could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer each year? [B] would hang in between.

But [D] solves the puzzle pretty clearly.
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Re: A career in dermatology Kaplan 800 [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2012, 09:05
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methevoid wrote:
Look at [B] from a mathematical point of view - for example in DS questions when we are talking about a unique value of X, and the equation is quadratic, you would know that X could take 2 values so you cannot find a unique X.

Similarly here, when it qualifies people {who intentionally continue to expose themselves to UV sunlight and thus absorb larger doses of harmful radiation than the average suntanner did in the past} - You do not know what was the number of people doing it in past and what is the number of people doing that intentional exposure today.

So when the question asks which of these if true could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer each year? [B] would hang in between.

But [D] solves the puzzle pretty clearly.


Looks to me that option A answers the question better.
Option D talks about number of men and women, both of whom should safely qualify as adults. And the passage does make a statement saying that the number of adults going in for an intentional exposure to UV due to sun-tan has decreased.
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Re: A career in dermatology Kaplan 800 [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2012, 03:33
rohitgarg wrote:
Can someone explain why B is wrong?
My logic is,
Say
earlier there were
Total number of people = 100 ( 60 intentionally exposing +40 other reasons ).

Now
Total number of people =100 ( 20 intentionally exposing +80 other reasons )

So ,now these 20 people can expose as much they can, but they cannot effect the total number.
Atleast they can not increase the total number.
So, Why B is wrong, when it is giving us information about intensity of exposure.
And cancer rate is no where in ques. Argument is only about total number of cases.


Hi Rohit

You are missing a point. Only exposure does not cause cancer, large amount of doses cause cancer. Now read option B again. In the past the same people who intentionally exposed themselves were taking less doses, so no cancer to them. But now the people expose themselves for larger amount of time, so cancer.

Hope it helps !
:-D
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Re: A career in dermatology Kaplan 800 [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2012, 03:35
rohitgarg wrote:
Can someone explain why B is wrong?
My logic is,
Say
earlier there were
Total number of people = 100 ( 60 intentionally exposing +40 other reasons ).

Now
Total number of people =100 ( 20 intentionally exposing +80 other reasons )

So ,now these 20 people can expose as much they can, but they cannot effect the total number.
Atleast they can not increase the total number.
So, Why B is wrong, when it is giving us information about intensity of exposure.
And cancer rate is no where in ques. Argument is only about total number of cases.


Hi Rohit

You are missing a point. Only exposure does not cause cancer, large amount of doses cause cancer. Now read option B again. In the past the same people who intentionally exposed themselves were taking less doses, so no cancer to them. But now the people expose themselves for longer of time, so cancer.

Hope it helps !
:-D
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Re: A career in dermatology Kaplan 800 [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2012, 03:50
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rohitgarg wrote:
A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical students. In the US., the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant every year even though far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now than were doing so at the height of the suntan craze 20yrs ago

each of the following,if true could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer each year despite the decrease in intentional exposure to UV sunlight EXCEPT:

a) bcause of decreasing levels of ozone in the upper atmosphere,more people are now exposed accidently to excessive UV sunlight
b) people who continue to intentionally expose themselves to UV sunlight are absorbing larger doses of harmful radiation than the average suntanner did in the past
c) levels of UV radiation from sources other than sunlight are increasing every year
d) while fewer women are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight,the number of men doing so has increased significantly

Can someone explain why B is wrong?
My logic is,
Say
earlier there were
Total number of people = 100 ( 60 intentionally exposing +40 other reasons ).

Now
Total number of people =100 ( 20 intentionally exposing +80 other reasons )

So ,now these 20 people can expose as much they can, but they cannot effect the total number.
Atleast they can not increase the total number.
So, Why B is wrong, when it is giving us information about intensity of exposure.
And cancer rate is no where in ques. Argument is only about total number of cases.


If I were to just skim through the options and option D was not there, I might think that B is correct too. But on further analysis, you find that D is the correct answer. Let's see why.

Argument:
- the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant
- far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now

This is a paradox, right? How will you explain it? By saying that either
1. people getting exposed unintentionally is increasing or
2. the incidence of cancer among people getting intentionally exposed is increasing (I will explain what this means soon)

Options A and C basically give you the reason 1 above.

Option B gives you the reason 2 above.
Say, out of 100 total people, 40 were intentionally exposing themselves to UV rays. Incidence of cancer among these 40 was 10% i.e. 4 of them used to get afflicted by cancer.
Now, say only 20 intentionally expose themselves but take much higher doses. Say now the incidence of cancer among them is 25% (increased because of higher dose). Again 4 people will get afflicted.
So B can also explain the paradox.

But D cannot. Proportion of men and women is immaterial. The overall number of people exposing themselves to UV rays intentionally has certainly decreased as given in the argument.
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 20 Jan 2014, 02:09
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 11:03
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
rohitgarg wrote:
A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical students. In the US., the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant every year even though far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now than were doing so at the height of the suntan craze 20yrs ago

each of the following,if true could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer each year despite the decrease in intentional exposure to UV sunlight EXCEPT:

a) bcause of decreasing levels of ozone in the upper atmosphere,more people are now exposed accidently to excessive UV sunlight
b) people who continue to intentionally expose themselves to UV sunlight are absorbing larger doses of harmful radiation than the average suntanner did in the past
c) levels of UV radiation from sources other than sunlight are increasing every year
d) while fewer women are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight,the number of men doing so has increased significantly

Can someone explain why B is wrong?
My logic is,
Say
earlier there were
Total number of people = 100 ( 60 intentionally exposing +40 other reasons ).

Now
Total number of people =100 ( 20 intentionally exposing +80 other reasons )

So ,now these 20 people can expose as much they can, but they cannot effect the total number.
Atleast they can not increase the total number.
So, Why B is wrong, when it is giving us information about intensity of exposure.
And cancer rate is no where in ques. Argument is only about total number of cases.


If I were to just skim through the options and option D was not there, I might think that B is correct too. But on further analysis, you find that D is the correct answer. Let's see why.

Argument:
- the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant
- far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now

This is a paradox, right? How will you explain it? By saying that either
1. people getting exposed unintentionally is increasing or
2. the incidence of cancer among people getting intentionally exposed is increasing (I will explain what this means soon)

Options A and C basically give you the reason 1 above.

Option B gives you the reason 2 above.
Say, out of 100 total people, 40 were intentionally exposing themselves to UV rays. Incidence of cancer among these 40 was 10% i.e. 4 of them used to get afflicted by cancer.
Now, say only 20 intentionally expose themselves but take much higher doses. Say now the incidence of cancer among them is 25% (increased because of higher dose). Again 4 people will get afflicted.
So B can also explain the paradox.

But D cannot. Proportion of men and women is immaterial. The overall number of people exposing themselves to UV rays intentionally has certainly decreased as given in the argument.

Hi Karishma,
Don't you find it that option D is actually negating the statements?
If it's stated that far less adults are exposing themselves intentionally, than what does it matter if more men are exposing while the number of women is decreasing?
Either way, the total number is decreasing...
No?
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2014, 19:02
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ronr34 wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
rohitgarg wrote:
A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical students. In the US., the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant every year even though far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now than were doing so at the height of the suntan craze 20yrs ago

each of the following,if true could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer each year despite the decrease in intentional exposure to UV sunlight EXCEPT:

a) bcause of decreasing levels of ozone in the upper atmosphere,more people are now exposed accidently to excessive UV sunlight
b) people who continue to intentionally expose themselves to UV sunlight are absorbing larger doses of harmful radiation than the average suntanner did in the past
c) levels of UV radiation from sources other than sunlight are increasing every year
d) while fewer women are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight,the number of men doing so has increased significantly

Can someone explain why B is wrong?
My logic is,
Say
earlier there were
Total number of people = 100 ( 60 intentionally exposing +40 other reasons ).

Now
Total number of people =100 ( 20 intentionally exposing +80 other reasons )

So ,now these 20 people can expose as much they can, but they cannot effect the total number.
Atleast they can not increase the total number.
So, Why B is wrong, when it is giving us information about intensity of exposure.
And cancer rate is no where in ques. Argument is only about total number of cases.


If I were to just skim through the options and option D was not there, I might think that B is correct too. But on further analysis, you find that D is the correct answer. Let's see why.

Argument:
- the number of cases of skin cancer linked to UV radiation in sunlight has remained relatively constant
- far fewer adults are intentionally exposing themselves to UV sunlight now

This is a paradox, right? How will you explain it? By saying that either
1. people getting exposed unintentionally is increasing or
2. the incidence of cancer among people getting intentionally exposed is increasing (I will explain what this means soon)

Options A and C basically give you the reason 1 above.

Option B gives you the reason 2 above.
Say, out of 100 total people, 40 were intentionally exposing themselves to UV rays. Incidence of cancer among these 40 was 10% i.e. 4 of them used to get afflicted by cancer.
Now, say only 20 intentionally expose themselves but take much higher doses. Say now the incidence of cancer among them is 25% (increased because of higher dose). Again 4 people will get afflicted.
So B can also explain the paradox.

But D cannot. Proportion of men and women is immaterial. The overall number of people exposing themselves to UV rays intentionally has certainly decreased as given in the argument.

Hi Karishma,
Don't you find it that option D is actually negating the statements?
If it's stated that far less adults are exposing themselves intentionally, than what does it matter if more men are exposing while the number of women is decreasing?
Either way, the total number is decreasing...
No?


You are correct but that is the point - it is an EXCEPT question:
"... could explain the relative stability in the incidence of skin cancer despite the decrease in intentional exposure EXCEPT"
So (D) does not explain the stability in the incidence. It doesn't matter whether number of men is increasing or number of women is decreasing. The point is that total number is decreasing. So it doesn't explain the stability in the incidence of skin cancer.
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 14 Jan 2015, 08:56
Hello All,

Can someone please explain why choice E is incorrect in this question

(E) In most victims, skin cancer is linked to exposures to UV sunlight that occurred up to 30 years before the onset of disease.


I can't get how this statement is linked with argument.

Thanks
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 14 Jan 2015, 22:05
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vikasbansal227 wrote:
Hello All,

Can someone please explain why choice E is incorrect in this question

(E) In most victims, skin cancer is linked to exposures to UV sunlight that occurred up to 30 years before the onset of disease.


I can't get how this statement is linked with argument.

Thanks


I don't see an option (E) in this question.

But even if it were there, it would explain the stability in the number of skin cancer cases.
The argument tells us that there was a sun tan craze 20 yrs ago. So people exposed their skin to UV rays at that time. Since skin cancer is linked to exposures that occurred up to 30 yrs ago, the people getting skin cancer nowadays could be those who exposed their skin to UV rays 20 yrs ago. That would explain why people are still getting the disease though very few are intentionally exposing their skin to UV rays nowadays.
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 14 Jan 2015, 22:37
Thank you for nice explanation :)

I was wary excluding this choice while attempting this problem. Since there is insufficient evidence in the argument to suggest that the UV exposure was high enough 30 years back.

Although it is clearly mentioned that suntan craze was there 20 years back, but can we do assumption based extrapolation of this trend unto 30 years? Maybe trend that existed 20 years ago may only started few years back, isn't it.


Thank you.
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Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical [#permalink] New post 14 Jan 2015, 22:39
Source of this problem is KAPLAN 800 book.
Re: A career in dermatology is still a safe bet for medical   [#permalink] 14 Jan 2015, 22:39
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