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A cat will not be affectionate toward people unless it is

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A cat will not be affectionate toward people unless it is [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2010, 04:40
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A cat will not be affectionate toward people unless it is handled when it is a kitten. Since the cat that Paula plans to give to her friend was handled when it was a kitten, that cat will be affectionate toward people.

The flawed reasoning in the argument above most closely parallels that in which one of the following?
(A) Tulip bulbs will not produce flowers unless they are chilled for two months. Since the tulip bulbs in the clay pot were not chilled for two months, these bulbs will not produce flowers.
(B) Beets do not grow well unless the soil in which they are grown contains trace amounts of boron. Since the beets in this plot are growing well, the soil in the plot must contain trace amounts of boron.
(C) Fruit trees will not produce much fruit unless they are pruned properly. That the fruit trees at the local orchard produce a large amount of fruit proves that they have been pruned properly.
(D) Cranberries will not thrive unless they are grown in bogs. Since the cranberries in this area are not grown in bogs, these cranberries will not thrive.
(E) Crass seeds will not germinate well unless they are pressed firmly into the ground. The grass seeds sown in this yard were pressed firmly into the ground, so they will germinate well.

Please explain how to approach these kind of questions!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2010, 05:54
A cat will not be affectionate toward people unless it is handled when it is a kitten. Since the cat that Paula plans to give to her friend was handled when it was a kitten, that cat will be affectionate toward people.

This question is very tough in my terms but can be solved by POE. Look how the argument is constructed - A cat wont be affectionate when not handled when it is kitten (present adult wont be affectionate when not handled in past well when kid ; some thing like this). Second sentence - Since cat that Paula owns has been handled well, the cat will be affectionate (In past kid has been handled well, hence the present adult will be affectionate).

Using this logic use POE to get to your answer
A) Tulip bulbs will not produce flowers unless they are chilled for two months. Since the tulip bulbs in the clay pot were not chilled for two months, these bulbs will not produce flowers.
Here Tulips produce flowers - adult will be affectionate,chilled for two months - handled well when kid. So this option does not follow the logic in the argument hence eliminated
(B) Beets do not grow well unless the soil in which they are grown contains trace amounts of boron. Since the beets in this plot are growing well, the soil in the plot must contain trace amounts of boron.
the problem here is growing well is something like it is still continuing (so keep this option till you scan the others)
(C) Fruit trees will not produce much fruit unless they are pruned properly. That the fruit trees at the local orchard produce a large amount of fruit proves that they have been pruned properly.
It should have been since they have been pruned, the fruit trees will produce large amount of fruit - eliminated
(D) Cranberries will not thrive unless they are grown in bogs. Since the cranberries in this area are not grown in bogs, these cranberries will not thrive.
his option does not follow the logic in the argument hence eliminated- same as option 1
(E) Crass seeds will not germinate well unless they are pressed firmly into the ground. The grass seeds sown in this yard were pressed firmly into the ground, so they will germinate well.
This follows the correct logic that has been established in the argument hence the correct answer.

Hope this helps

Sandeep Nerli
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2010, 20:26
I'll go with E
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2010, 23:26
My approach:
X= affectionate Y=handled when small
1)A cat will not be affectionate toward people unless it is handled when it is a kitten.
Not X unless Y
2) Since the cat that Paula plans to give to her friend was handled when it was a kitten, that cat will be affectionate toward people.
Y -->so X
so together: not X unless Y; Y--> X
Now , compare all the answers with "not X unless Y; Y--> X"
A) not X unless Y; not Y --> not X
B) not X unless Y; X--> Y
C) not X unless Y; X <--Y
D) not X unless Y; not Y --> not X
E) not X unless Y;Y -->X
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2010, 03:19
A cat will not be affectionate toward people unless it is handled when it is a kitten. Since the cat that Paula plans to give to her friend was handled when it was a kitten, that cat will be affectionate toward people.

The Flaw in the reasoning is that, argument conciders only 1 condition as the sole condition for result. As in above

if handled when it was kitten - Cat will be affectionate. What if cat develops a people phobia disease later :)

Now lets check E

Crass seeds will not germinate well unless they are pressed firmly into the ground. The grass seeds sown in this yard were pressed firmly into the ground, so they will germinate well.

Works on same logic

If pressed firmly - Crass seeds will germinate . What if later some seed disease infects the seed ? :)

IMO so E
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2010, 08:33
E for me ...the technique was same as Sandeep's...


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.This question was asked in one of Miss India Contests ....if I remeber correctly ....cheers
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2010, 11:14
Can some one please explain why not D
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Re: Cat [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2010, 21:27
Hi onedayill,

D follows does not follow the same causation.

Argument - Call will not be affectionate if not handled well when kitten. Some cat was handled well when kitten, hence affectionate
But D - Cranberries will not thrive unless grown in bogs (OK). Since not grown in bog , cranberries will not thrive (Not Ok), rather this option would have been correct if the 2nd statement would something be like - Since cranberries were grown in bogs, hence cranberries will thrive

Hence D wrong.

Hope this helps

Sandeep,
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Re: Cat   [#permalink] 10 Jul 2010, 21:27
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