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# A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day

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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  19 Jul 2008, 18:32
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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Narenn on 17 Oct 2013, 02:12, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  19 Jul 2008, 21:04
I think B is the best, pointing out that the cause many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus is "parking fee" not the cost of round-trip bus.

correct me if possible!
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  19 Jul 2008, 22:32
I think its E. The tax is going to be more expensive than the cost of the bus from 'nearby points'. The majority of the traffic is from outside of the city (75%) where the bus fare would cost would also be high.
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  19 Jul 2008, 23:47
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.

The answer is cleary B as the mayor predicts to solve traffic congestion problem via implementing a fee on city enterance, yet the money or cost will not make any sense to car owners because the parking fees are already high making car expense more expensive than bus fares.
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  20 Jul 2008, 05:02
Could on you point out the flaws in B. Thanks!
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  20 Jul 2008, 19:18
my IOA is A
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  20 Jul 2008, 22:34
OA is B.
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Re: CR-city's traffic congestion [#permalink]  21 Jul 2008, 22:13
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The reason why i thought B was the right answer was : If high parking fees hasn't been able to change people's mind to switch to bus then another 5 dollars is not gonna make them do so ..

This was the reason i choose B .. and B is the right answer. However i m not too sure if my reasoning is correct.
This is a Gmat prep Q and therefore there is o explanation given there
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  17 Jun 2012, 20:01
Please explain why C is incorrect.
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  18 Jun 2012, 05:46
narangvaibhav wrote:
Please explain why C is incorrect.

c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
If most people don't own private vehicles, then they resigned to ride the bus everyday. So, that means the mayors plan WILL work.
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  17 Jul 2013, 18:16
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I totally fell on the trap on this one so here is my retrospective analysis.

The key was recognizing that it is a CAUSE and EFFECT relationship. The mayor's plan is the increasing tax will result in decreased city traffic congestion.

A) Gasoline prices make it expensive to take the private vehicle into the city. However, this almost strengthens the argument as it will help if less people will go AND there is a fee as well.
B) I totally missed out on this at first because I did not understand WHY a discussion of parking fee would be relevant. However, again with the cause and effect questions, we should be on the look out for alternative reasons for the effect or other causes of the effect. This choice states that the cost of parking is already more expensive than bus costs and people are still going into the city. As a result, adding the fee would not have any impact.

C) this is not relevant because the conculsion is concerned about the people driving into the city
D) this seemed like a good choice at first but on further analysis realized that this is not really relevant. If MANY people are saying that they would rather endure the traffic, then there are still SOME people are not saying this. The mayor's plan would not have to include ALL people. The arugment just says "many people will switch to buses."
E) this is not relevant because the conculsion is concerned about the people driving into the city, not the ones living in the city.
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  29 Jul 2013, 06:00
it is weakening rather than flaw in reasoning question
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  31 Jul 2013, 07:50
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We are looking for the flaw in the reasoning. This argument is the plan format in which a person introduces a plan as a solution to a problem. The assumption in these types of arguments is that the plan will work without creating new difficulties. Therefore to find the flaw, we are looking for an answer choice that gives a reason why the plan won't work. In this case the plan is the increase fees beyond the cost of a bus trip to encourage commuters to use the bus.
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.Increasing the cost further may show that the plan is more likely to work so this is not the flaw
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.if it is already more expensive to drive than to ride the bus then it is likely the plan will not work - the flaw is assuming that people will choose to drive or take the bus based solely on a cost comparison. This answer shows that this is already not the case
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.information about people currently riding the bus is not useful in an argument about people who do not currently ride the bus - the argument does not address current ridership
d) Many [color=#ff0000]commuters opposing the mayor's plan[/color] have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.This answer only deals with the commuters opposing the plan - the argument addresses all commuters
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion. people living within the city cannot be the flaw in the argument because the argument is about people living outside the city

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  31 Jul 2013, 18:40
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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
it strengthens the mayor's argument that the increasing cost of taking private vehicle will exceed the cost of round trip bus fare

b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
Correct. It proves that the mayor's argument is flaw. The cost of taking private vehicle into the city has already exceeded the cost of round trip bus fare, but city's traffic congestion issue has not been solved

c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
it does not help to answer if the cost of taking private car into the city increase, the car's owner will switch to use bus

d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
its not relevant to answer if having to pay 5 dollar per day fee will prevent the private car owners from driving car into the city

e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.
it helps to prove that the mayor's argument is not strong, as the city's traffic congestion issue is partly not due to the private car from outside of the city
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  07 Aug 2013, 05:49
Stuck between B and D can someone explain! Thanks in advance
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  07 Aug 2013, 06:05
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Stuck between B and D can someone explain! Thanks in advance

A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion.
The next part states the reason why the major proposed such fee.
The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?

b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
The major says the the plan will be successful because the new costs will exceed "the cost of round-trip bus fare", B states that the cost of taking a bus is already LOWER than driving a private car; so its reasoning "the plan will be successful because will make the alternative (the bus) cheaper" is flawed.

d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
Even if this is true, the reasoning of the major is legit. The question asks for the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed, so the correct answer will address a point of his argument. Given his argument : "the plan will be successful because will make the alternative (the bus) cheaper"; and D : "Many commuters would rather endure traffic congestion" I cannot say that his reasoning is flawed. I can say maybe that the plan will not be very successful (as some commuters will use cars) , but his reasoning still sounds good to me.
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  07 Aug 2013, 06:07
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Stuck between B and D can someone explain! Thanks in advance

conclusion:
people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

premise:
the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points

b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
according to this ....current scenario is that PARKING FEES is more expensive than bus fare cost==>still people are choosing to go by private vehicles...in short EXTRA COST will not affect.
hence this clearly weakens the conclusion.

option D:
Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five
dollar per day fee.
IN THIS option it talks about only those commuters who are opposing the mayors plan==>so this will not weaken anyhow..as this is not considering the complete scenario.

hope it helps
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  07 Aug 2013, 18:49
Expert's post
fozzzy wrote:
Stuck between B and D can someone explain! Thanks in advance

I think the explanations above by Zarrolou and blueseas explain why D is incorrect.

I just wanted to add one more thing.

If the author is concluding that X will lead to Y. You can point out a flaw only by saying that X may/will not lead to Y.

You cannot say that the author's reasoning is flawed because you do not even want Y or it is quite difficult to achieve X. You have to directly attack what he is saying.

The Mayor's claim is:

the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. {X (the fee) will lead to Y (less traffic congestion)}

Option D says
Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee {We don't prefer Y over X}

Even if option D said that
Everyone has indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee

In this case, option D will be wrong. The mayor has not considered people's preferences but his "reasoning" to achieve a certain objective (less congestion) is still fine.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  04 Sep 2013, 22:11
egmat wrote:
fozzzy wrote:
Stuck between B and D can someone explain! Thanks in advance

I think the explanations above by Zarrolou and blueseas explain why D is incorrect.

I just wanted to add one more thing.

If the author is concluding that X will lead to Y. You can point out a flaw only by saying that X may/will not lead to Y.

You cannot say that the author's reasoning is flawed because you do not even want Y or it is quite difficult to achieve X. You have to directly attack what he is saying.

The Mayor's claim is:

the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. {X (the fee) will lead to Y (less traffic congestion)}

Option D says
Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee {We don't prefer Y over X}

Even if option D said that
Everyone has indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee

In this case, option D will be wrong. The mayor has not considered people's preferences but his "reasoning" to achieve a certain objective (less congestion) is still fine.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

Chiranjeev I am little confused post your explanation...Though i know that the answer is very much B , the only reason i discarded D is because of the quantifying word "MANY"...Dont we need to consider the feasibility of the application of a reasoning to point whether its flawed or not ... Even in option B we are very much considering the success of the plan to determine whether the mayor's reasoning will result in a successful application or not...to find a flaw in this reasoning the only way it can be done is by evaluating its practical application..In option D as it says "Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee"...So even if those opposing actually dont take bus and endure traffic congestion , still we will be left with MANY or SOME commuters who can fall prey to Mayor's reasoning ..So obviously it is not pointing out the flaw in Mayor's reasoning .....
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]  06 Sep 2013, 02:04
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abhijeetjha wrote:

Chiranjeev I am little confused post your explanation...

Actually, it is good to be confused. Confusion is the first step to learning

abhijeetjha wrote:
Though i know that the answer is very much B , the only reason i discarded D is because of the quantifying word "MANY"...Dont we need to consider the feasibility of the application of a reasoning to point whether its flawed or not ... Even in option B we are very much considering the success of the plan to determine whether the mayor's reasoning will result in a successful application or not...to find a flaw in this reasoning the only way it can be done is by evaluating its practical application..

abhijeetjha wrote:
In option D as it says "Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee"...So even if those opposing actually dont take bus and endure traffic congestion , still we will be left with MANY or SOME commuters who can fall prey to Mayor's reasoning ..So obviously it is not pointing out the flaw in Mayor's reasoning .....

Option D says many people opposing the plan prefer traffic congestion over five dollar fee. Right?

Now, suppose if five dollar fee is initiated, would these people drive cars or use buses?

The answer is: We don't know.

We only know that these people prefer current situation of high traffic than a five dollar fee proposed by the Mayor. But what would happen if they are asked to pay five dollar fee? Do we know? No.

abhijeetjha wrote:
So even if those opposing actually dont take bus and endure traffic congestion , still we will be left with MANY or SOME commuters who can fall prey to Mayor's reasoning

How can we say that these people will not take the bus? Remember option D is talking about (Traffic congestion vs five dollar fee) and NOT (comfort of car vs five dollar fee).

On the contrary, since these people are so much unwilling to pay five dollar fee, then in case Mayor's plan is instituted, they will probably be the first one to drop their cars and switch to buses. In this case, option D rather seems to support the Mayor's plan since it talks about a category of people who'll likely behave per Mayor's plan.

However, I would not go this far to suggest that option D supports Mayor's plan.

The best way to look at option D is in relation to the argument given.

What is the mayor's plan?
Five dollar fee for pvt vehicles (X) ---> fee will exceed the cost of round trip bus fare ----> most people will switch to bus ---> Traffic congestion will ease (Y)

What is option D?
Many people prefer (Not of Y) over X i.e. traffic congestion over five dollar fee. In other words, these people prefer current situation over Mayor's plan. Right? In the current situation, we have traffic congestion and no fee.

Now, my point was that if many or all people don't want your plan, it does not indicate a flaw in your reasoning. Here, it is important to understand what we mean by reasoning. Reasoning is simple: How premises lead to the conclusion?

So, if Mayor's plan is that five dollar fee will lead to reduction in traffic congestion, then a flaw needs to indicate that five dollar fee will not lead to reduction in traffic congestion. This is what option B does.

Option B breaks this link in Mayor's reasoning: fee will exceed the cost of round trip bus fare ----> most people will switch to bus

Option B says that the cost of taking a private vehicle is already greater than the cost of round trip fare. It is already higher and people have not switched to buses. Right? So, Mayor's reasoning is incorrect.

On the other hand, option D just talks about preferences of people.

For example: if Indian PM Manmohan Singh says that making him the finance minister will lead to higher economic growth in the country.

Then, if everyone says that they do not want to make him finance minister and are happy with current economic growth, this fact is not a flaw in his reasoning.

A flaw should indicate that even after making him the finance minister, the economic growth will not be higher.

Does it help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day   [#permalink] 06 Sep 2013, 02:04

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