A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 16 Jan 2017, 15:38

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States,

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 20 Nov 2009
Posts: 167
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 201 [2] , given: 64

A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 Jul 2010, 11:10
2
KUDOS
8
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

85% (hard)

Question Stats:

39% (02:07) correct 61% (01:16) wrong based on 466 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy on imports from other member nations.
A. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy
B. dictated the tariff reduction that member nations had been levying
C. dictates the tariff reduction member nations have been permitted to levy
D. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy
E. dictates the reduction of tariffs permitted for levying by member nations
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

_________________

But there’s something in me that just keeps going on. I think it has something to do with tomorrow, that there is always one, and that everything can change when it comes.
http://aimingformba.blogspot.com

If you have any questions
New!
Moderator
Status: battlecruiser, operational...
Joined: 25 Apr 2010
Posts: 983
Schools: Carey '16
GMAT 1: Q V
Followers: 12

Kudos [?]: 159 [0], given: 71

### Show Tags

22 Jul 2010, 11:14
Got this one wrong but I see my mistake. I went too fast and thought that "reduction of tariffs" were a little wordy and went with the two that had "tariff reduction"

_________________
Intern
Joined: 11 Apr 2010
Posts: 22
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 11

### Show Tags

22 Jul 2010, 11:28
A. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy - the accord is still active
B. dictated the tariff reduction that member nations had been levying - unidiomatic
C. dictates the tariff reduction member nations have been permitted to levy - that missing
D. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy - CORRECT
E. dictates the reduction of tariffs permitted for levying by member nations - that missing
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 997
Location: Singapore
Followers: 22

Kudos [?]: 747 [0], given: 36

### Show Tags

22 Jul 2010, 22:44
I think you have the wrong OA. Should be C. Please check.

present perfect is used for action which started in the past and continues into the present. So it should be dictates and "have been permitted".

If this fifty year accord which was signed in 1994 then it still holds - so still "dictates" rather than "dictated" which is past tense and over.
_________________

Please press kudos if you like my post.

Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 997
Location: Singapore
Followers: 22

Kudos [?]: 747 [0], given: 36

### Show Tags

22 Jul 2010, 23:19
Thanks let me ping gmat instructors Sarai or Tommy.
_________________

Please press kudos if you like my post.

Retired Moderator
Status: The last round
Joined: 18 Jun 2009
Posts: 1310
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 680 Q48 V34
Followers: 78

Kudos [?]: 999 [0], given: 157

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2010, 11:04
As intimated above, I have some doubts about OA.

Firstly, reduction of tarrifs seemed wrong to me, as I thought it should be reduction in. So I eliminated other choices.

Secondly, the accord was signed in 1994 & is still valid, so we can use "dictates". I chose "C". Whats the source???
_________________
SVP
Joined: 17 Feb 2010
Posts: 1558
Followers: 19

Kudos [?]: 572 [2] , given: 6

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2010, 11:47
2
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
I myself picked 'A' as the OA but below is the reasoning for why D is correct.

The sentence is talking of 2 different things.

The accord dictated reduction of tariffs

Tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy on imports

Between A and D.

A suggests that member nations had been permitted to levy tariffs [means member nations are not permitted to levy tariffs anymore] whereas
D says member nations are still permitted to levy tariffs [present tense]....which is correct

A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy on imports from other member nations.

A. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy

B. dictated the tariff reduction that member nations had been levying - this changes the meaning. The member nations are permitted to levy tariffs. This sentence says "member nations had been levying tariff reduction"....which is not the intended meaning.

C. dictates the tariff reduction member nations have been permitted to levy - this changes the meaning. The member nations are permitted to levy tariffs. This sentence says "member nations have been permitted to levy tariff reduction"....which is not the intended meaning.

D. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy - CORRECT

E. dictates the reduction of tariffs permitted for levying by member nations - awkward
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 997
Location: Singapore
Followers: 22

Kudos [?]: 747 [0], given: 36

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2010, 18:26
dictated is past tense. So basically you are saying that it was over sometime back and still going on.
"dictated" w/ present tense [are]. Did I miss something?
_________________

Please press kudos if you like my post.

Last edited by nusmavrik on 23 Jul 2010, 20:34, edited 1 time in total.
Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 997
Location: Singapore
Followers: 22

Kudos [?]: 747 [1] , given: 36

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2010, 18:40
1
KUDOS
Compare with this SC. The use of past tense (violated) is correct in the OA since judge overturned the ban, so ban is history now. "ban violated the state laws" ---> is correct

Sentence is logical, there is no contradiction - State laws and ban couldn't coexist, so Judge was nice to let go the ban.

Nine months after the county banned jet skis and other water bikes
from the tranquil waters of Puget Sound, a judge overturned the ban on the
grounds of violating state laws for allowing the use of personal watercraft
on common waterways
A. of violating state laws for allowing
B. of their violating state laws to allow
C. that it violates state laws that allowed
D. that it violated state laws allowing
E. that state laws were being violated allowing

OA is D
_________________

Please press kudos if you like my post.

Intern
Joined: 25 May 2008
Posts: 12
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 22 [2] , given: 0

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2010, 21:05
2
KUDOS
You guys are having a nice and friendly discussion around here. Allow me to join in and give you my take on the issue;

A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy on imports from other member nations.
A. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy---- You absolutely don't need the past perfect; "to permit" is not an "action verb".
B. dictated the tariff reduction that member nations had been levying-----------------> You don't levy a "tariff reduction", you do levy a tariff.
C. dictates the tariff reduction member nations have been permitted to levy----------->You don't levy a "tariff reduction", you do levy a tariff.
D. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy----------> "dictated" is fine because of the date "1994" and "are permitted" is the correct use of the verb.
E. dictates the reduction of tariffs permitted for levying by member nations ------------> "permitted for levying" is clearly unacceptable

In general, avoid using the present perfect and the past perfect when you're dealing with non-action verbs such as "to permit", "to allow", etc... especially on the GMAT.

A similar SC question from the GMAT is shown below. Guess what the correct answer is.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of
phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
_________________

Dakar Azu is The GMAT Doctor.
Dakar is an experienced GMAT teacher who can be reached at http://700gmatclub.com. He prepares aspiring business students thoroughly to get them well over the GMAT 700-score hurdle through his online GMAT courses.

Director
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 997
Location: Singapore
Followers: 22

Kudos [?]: 747 [0], given: 36

### Show Tags

23 Jul 2010, 22:30
Voila. Thanks for the explanations. I agree with the explanation for "levy".
You don't levy a "tariff reduction", you do levy a tariff.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of
phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

For the above question i'm optioning D.
A is wrong since it uses the past perfect "had been permitted". Past perfect is used to sequence two past actions. Guess if municipalities already dumped the wastes then they can't possibly reduce the amount of phosphates in the dumping. Its done, its over. Hence A OUT. D is correct.

TheGMATDoctor wrote:
You guys are having a nice and friendly discussion around here. Allow me to join in and give you my take on the issue;

A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy on imports from other member nations.
A. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy---- You absolutely don't need the past perfect; "to permit" is not an "action verb".
B. dictated the tariff reduction that member nations had been levying-----------------> You don't levy a "tariff reduction", you do levy a tariff.
C. dictates the tariff reduction member nations have been permitted to levy----------->You don't levy a "tariff reduction", you do levy a tariff.
D. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy----------> "dictated" is fine because of the date "1994" and "are permitted" is the correct use of the verb.
E. dictates the reduction of tariffs permitted for levying by member nations ------------> "permitted for levying" is clearly unacceptable

In general, avoid using the present perfect and the past perfect when you're dealing with non-action verbs such as "to permit", "to allow", etc... especially on the GMAT.

A similar SC question from the GMAT is shown below. Guess what the correct answer is.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of
phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

_________________

Please press kudos if you like my post.

Manager
Joined: 08 Jan 2010
Posts: 194
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 13

### Show Tags

25 Jul 2010, 11:30
nusmavrik wrote:
Compare with this SC. The use of past tense (violated) is correct in the OA since judge overturned the ban, so ban is history now. "ban violated the state laws" ---> is correct

Sentence is logical, there is no contradiction - State laws and ban couldn't coexist, so Judge was nice to let go the ban.

Nine months after the county banned jet skis and other water bikes
from the tranquil waters of Puget Sound, a judge overturned the ban on the
grounds of violating state laws for allowing the use of personal watercraft
on common waterways
A. of violating state laws for allowing
B. of their violating state laws to allow
C. that it violates state laws that allowed
D. that it violated state laws allowing
E. that state laws were being violated allowing

OA is D

I am quite ok with OA here.........here allowing is not the usual verb but functions as an Adverb ...allowing the(adjective) use(noun).....its a special case
Manager
Joined: 08 Jan 2010
Posts: 194
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 13

### Show Tags

25 Jul 2010, 11:32
TheGMATDoctor wrote:
You guys are having a nice and friendly discussion around here. Allow me to join in and give you my take on the issue;

In general, avoid using the present perfect and the past perfect when you're dealing with non-action verbs such as "to permit", "to allow", etc... especially on the GMAT.

A similar SC question from the GMAT is shown below. Guess what the correct answer is.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of
phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

I also guess it to be D ........thanks for the explanation
Director
Status: 1,750 Q's attempted and counting
Affiliations: University of Florida
Joined: 09 Jul 2013
Posts: 513
Location: United States (FL)
Schools: UFL (A)
GMAT 1: 600 Q45 V29
GMAT 2: 590 Q35 V35
GMAT 3: 570 Q42 V28
GMAT 4: 610 Q44 V30
GPA: 3.45
WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Followers: 26

Kudos [?]: 746 [0], given: 630

Re: A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Nov 2013, 17:45
There is a great explanation from Stacey Koprince @ MGMAT in the following link regarding the OG question posted by Dakar Azu.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/og-sc-62-t580.html
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 10526
Followers: 917

Kudos [?]: 203 [0], given: 0

Re: A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Jun 2015, 05:43
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Intern
Joined: 25 Jun 2013
Posts: 17
Concentration: General Management, Operations
GMAT 1: 690 Q47 V38
GPA: 3.2
WE: Account Management (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 11 [0], given: 7

Re: A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Sep 2015, 02:53
aiming4mba wrote:
A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy on imports from other member nations.
A. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations had been permitted to levy
B. dictated the tariff reduction that member nations had been levying
C. dictates the tariff reduction member nations have been permitted to levy
D. dictated the reduction of tariffs that member nations are permitted to levy
E. dictates the reduction of tariffs permitted for levying by member nations

The accord was signed in the past, hence the tense of the verb 'dictate' should also be in the past. Eliminate C and E.
The member nations are still levying tariff. Hence ' are permitted to levy' is correct. IMO the answer is D.
Manager
Joined: 20 Apr 2014
Posts: 127
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 21

Re: A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States, [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Sep 2015, 01:46
actually I answered D but I took the risk since I realized it as 700+ question. answers of 700+ Qs look debatable away from basics. but it took 3 min.
Re: A fifty-year accord signed in 1994 by the United States,   [#permalink] 29 Sep 2015, 01:46
Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
According to United States Air Force officials, a cannon 2 29 May 2008, 22:53
According to United States Air Force officials, a cannon 6 06 Sep 2007, 06:09
12 According to United States Air Force officials, a cannon 25 14 Aug 2007, 10:13
According to United States Air Force officials, a cannon 2 09 Aug 2007, 20:54
According to United States Air Force officials, a cannon 6 02 Jul 2007, 17:15
Display posts from previous: Sort by