"That" indicates a phrase necessary to identify a noun. Since we already know what a higher interest rate is, the "that" clause would be inappropriate. However, we DON'T know which are "the factors" with the word itself. The sentence has to explain that we have factors THAT [insert identifier here].
So we know the "that" clause is modifying "factors," so we need an appropriate verb to modify them--keep, not keeps. We're down to B, D, and E.
From there, we zero in on the difference between the three choices. One that jumps out is "as" vs. "like". Here, we are comparing "spiraled" to "did last year." Comparing two verbs means we must use "as".
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