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# A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some

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A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2004, 08:46
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A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
[Reveal] Spoiler:
The answer is C..When exactly to use Have been, Had been and had. can anybody point out the subtle differences..thankx....

Last edited by doe007 on 03 May 2013, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Q8 (From the 1000 SC) [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2010, 16:31
Hey everyone,

I have this question from the 1000 SC thread and I have trouble understanding the answer. Also, if I am not wrong, the first 10 questions from the 1000 SC document and the answers provided in http://gmatclub.com/forum/1-1000sc-100-brutal-q-explanations-2-level-of-question-85402.html do not match.

Anyways, my question is:

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

The answer is C. I am trying to understand why the answer is C. Is it because "have been" is parallel with "has ever seen"?

Thank you,

-Harsh.
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Re: Q8 (From the 1000 SC) [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2010, 04:44
hpcarnegie wrote:
Hey everyone,

I have this question from the 1000 SC thread and I have trouble understanding the answer. Also, if I am not wrong, the first 10 questions from the 1000 SC document and the answers provided in http://gmatclub.com/forum/1-1000sc-100-brutal-q-explanations-2-level-of-question-85402.html do not match.

Anyways, my question is:

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

The answer is C. I am trying to understand why the answer is C. Is it because "have been" is parallel with "has ever seen"?

Thank you,

-Harsh.

hi harsh,
this is actually quite a simple question

here, 'which' is a noun modifier and so is 'believed' ... so both of them incorrectly modify "36 feet" ... whereas they should modify Quetzalcoatlus
so A, D & E are out

in B, "that" is not used correctly.
the use of "... and that .. " is not parallel because there's only one relative pronoun present.

the Quetzalcoatlus that had a wingspan ... and that ----> this would've been parallel

so we're left with C .... HTH

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26 Jul 2010, 07:35
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A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be - 'believed' is incorrectly modifying '36 feet'

(B) and that is believed to be - awkward

(C) and it is believed to have been - 'it' correctly refers to 'Quetzalcoatlus'. 'it' cannot refer to 'wingspan' because 'wingspan' is the object of the earlier clause. So the pronoun 'it' is unambiguously refering to the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus'

(D) which was, it is believed, - 'which' is incorrectly modifying '36 feet'

(E) which is believed to be - - 'which' is incorrectly modifying '36 feet'
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26 Jul 2010, 07:44
beleived is a past participle ,threfore it should modify the noun immediately preceding it......
in A it is 36 feet ,.....which it isnot supposed to modify instead it is supposed to modify quetzalas....

also since this bird is still beleived to be the largest flyig bird so have been is correct hhere/......

hence C
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26 Jul 2010, 10:14
IMO C...
The option correctly continues the first clause with the second..
Substitute the choice in the answer and compare your sentence with the one formed using option C...

You would clearly be able to spot the difference..
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02 Aug 2010, 09:30
marshpa wrote:
IMO B, here are my takes-
(A) believed to be--if we use this, this fragment refers back to wingspan. This means that wingspan of 36 feet is believed to be the largest creature world has ever seen.
(B) and that is believed to be--Correct
(C) and it is believed to have been-- believe to have been?? it is still the largest so incorrect tense.
(D) which was, it is believed--No past tense, we need present tense to show that creature is the largest.
(E) which is believed to be--I almost had this but later figured that we need and before this conjunction, this refers to wingspan again. But I am little doubtful here.

I think B is the correct choice because simple present should be used for "stating facts or general truths".The the sentence states a truth.

Moreover, 'That' which marks the beginning of the underlined part is parallel with the previous 'that'.
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Re: Sc : huge flying reptile [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2010, 16:22
Hey All,

This question is written incorrectly. There should not be a comma after "feet" in the correct response. It's a two part list, so it functions correctly without the comma (meaning the comma is unnecessary and thus wrong). Silly question.

-t

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
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Re: Sc : huge flying reptile [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2010, 01:32
hi tommy ,
i think comma is necessary
...... , past participle meaning no longer true but it is true..

......, and clause .... so this structure is also correct ..
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Q. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2010, 10:39
Q. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be

(B) and that is believed to be

(C) and it is believed to have been

(D) which was, it is believed,

(E) which is believed to be

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A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2010, 22:41
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

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31 Aug 2010, 01:59
mainhoon wrote:
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

C it is!

D & E are out for use of "which" - referring to wing span, and you would expect something about the wing span to apear in the following part.

C uses correctly the right tense with "have been" (it was back then and still is) connecting to "has ever seen"
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31 Aug 2010, 08:06
We need a main verb...... 'is', 'are'.....without which it becomes a run-on sentence. The main verb is missing in A.

option A reads.....A huge flying reptile that....... had a wingspan......, believed to be the

The correct option should be

A huge flying reptile that....... had a wingspan..... and it [Quetzalcoatlus] is believed to.......

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been - Also, 'have been' is parallel to 'has ever seen'
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
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03 Sep 2010, 16:21
Can anyone explain the correct choice? Thanks.

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
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Re: A huge flying object [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 16:44
mirjuni wrote:
Can anyone explain the correct choice? Thanks.

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

(C). The last phrase, "___ the largest flying creature the world has ever seen," is referring to the Quetzalcoatlus itself. All of the choices but (C) are referring to the wingspan, and not to the reptile itself. (C) fits because of the "it is believed to have been", where "it" refers to the reptile and not the wingspan.
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Re: A huge flying object [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 19:25
dkverma wrote:
What's wrong with B?

The "that" in "that is believed to be" refers to the wingspan and not the reptile, just like all of the other ones except (C). It would work if it said "and that is believed to be the largest wingspan the world has ever seen."
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Re: A huge flying object [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2010, 21:42
mirjuni wrote:
Can anyone explain the correct choice? Thanks.

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

A-- what is believed.. the principal clause is Que.. had a wingspan of 36 feet but to make the last sentence subordinate clause we need a relative pronoun .
B -- that is awkward.
D -- which is referring to feet and was is also wrong. we still believe that
E-- which is referring to feet

C clearly breaks the sentence and uses a proper present perfect tense that is || with the world has ever seen.
C is the ans
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23 Dec 2010, 07:32
Can a Grammar Guru please get down into the weeds of GMAT grammar and explain this one to me?

I would have picked the OA before I ever picked up a GMAT book... but ambiguous pronouns and clear antecedents and all the technical jargon played their part in creating some doubt as to why "it" in option c is not ambiguous? "it" can refer to:
1. Quetzalcoatlus; or
2. the wingspan

Granted 2. would be illogical... but when something seems preposterous, is that sufficient grounds to totally discard ambiguity and conclude that there is a "clear antecedent"?

A high–flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

a) believed to be

b) and that is believed to be

c) and it is believed to have been

d) which was, it is believed

e) which is believed to be
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A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2010, 00:28
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago,
the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying
creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
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27 Dec 2010, 09:50
Great question!

Here's my logic for which C is ok grammatically:

C: "A high–flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen."

First, let's get to the core of this sentence. Everything up to "years ago" is a warm-up that can be ignored. So now we have:

"The Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen."

Now, we essentially have an interesting case of parallelism here:

The Quetzalcoatlus...
2. is believed to have been...

Since we are dealing with parallelism, we really only have one subject in the sentence: the Quetzalcoatlus. Thus, both the "had" and "is" clauses refer to the bird itself.

That help?

Brett
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28 Dec 2010, 08:07
Thanks Brett --- that's a great approach... much appreciated.

but if we want to consider the use of "it" in C, then can we conclude that an "it" can only be ambiguous when there are two or more competing "subjects" in the sentence....

the "wingspan" I think is the "object" of the sentence? and so need not be tested against an "it" to test for ambiguity?

essence of the Q: is there there any rule that ambiguous pronouns only come up in the context of the presence of multiple "subjects" and "objects" appearing in the sentence do not create the same problems? Thanks.
Re: Quetzalcoatlus   [#permalink] 28 Dec 2010, 08:07

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