A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC) - Page 9
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 21 Jan 2017, 00:07

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 27 Feb 2004
Posts: 185
Location: illinois
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 25 [4] , given: 0

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Mar 2004, 08:46
4
KUDOS
25
This post was
BOOKMARKED
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
[Reveal] Spoiler:
The answer is C..When exactly to use Have been, Had been and had. can anybody point out the subtle differences..thankx....

Last edited by doe007 on 03 May 2013, 05:53, edited 1 time in total.
Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Sep 2010
Posts: 185
Schools: MBA, Thunderbird School of Global Management / BA, Wesleyan University
Followers: 96

Kudos [?]: 211 [0], given: 7

### Show Tags

28 Dec 2010, 09:20
I've never come across an instance where you can have two objects in a sentence and a single ambiguous pronoun. I've also never come across an instance where you can have an object and a subject of the same type and have the pronoun be unambiguous. Quite simply, the rule is this: A pronoun must clearly refer to one, and only one, antecedent.

I suppose an example would be:

"Bill gave Ted $5, and he said thank you." Here, "Bill" is the subject and "Ted" is the object. The "he" is still ambiguous even though we have only one "subject." Although we know logically that Ted is the one who would need to say "thank you," grammatically there's some ambiguity there. Brett _________________ Brett Beach-Kimball | Manhattan GMAT Instructor Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Reviews SVP Joined: 16 Jul 2009 Posts: 1628 Schools: CBS WE 1: 4 years (Consulting) Followers: 42 Kudos [?]: 1057 [0], given: 2 Re: Quetzalcoatlus [#permalink] ### Show Tags 28 Dec 2010, 11:55 BKimball wrote: I've never come across an instance where you can have two objects in a sentence and a single ambiguous pronoun. I've also never come across an instance where you can have an object and a subject of the same type and have the pronoun be unambiguous. Quite simply, the rule is this: A pronoun must clearly refer to one, and only one, antecedent. I suppose an example would be: "Bill gave Ted$5, and he said thank you."

Here, "Bill" is the subject and "Ted" is the object. The "he" is still ambiguous even though we have only one "subject." Although we know logically that Ted is the one who would need to say "thank you," grammatically there's some ambiguity there.

Brett

OK, so how can "it" be unambiguous here?

The Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

If the "it" were removed, it would be better: The Quetz had X, and is Y.

Thoughts on that?

_________________

The sky is the limit
800 is the limit

GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings

Manager
Joined: 11 Jul 2010
Posts: 227
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 88 [0], given: 20

### Show Tags

01 Jan 2011, 07:14
Thx Raptor. Picking c is not the issue. My question pertains to why "it" in C is not ambiguous, i.e., it possesses a valid "clear antecedent" as stated somewhere in the OG; in terms of choosing b/w wingspan vs. the Q in relation to "IT":

The Q <------------------------ "IT" ---------------------------> Wingspan
Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Sep 2010
Posts: 185
Schools: MBA, Thunderbird School of Global Management / BA, Wesleyan University
Followers: 96

Kudos [?]: 211 [0], given: 7

### Show Tags

02 Jan 2011, 17:27
noboru and gmat1011 -

The clause says "it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen."

The antecedent of a pronoun has to be clear, unambiguous, and logical. You cannot logically say "The wingspan is believed to be the largest flying creature..." because a wingspan is not a creature. As such, "wingspan" would be a nonsensical antecedent.

Similarly, if a sentence said:

"The beaver knocked over the tree, and then it ate it." --> Technically, both "its" could be considered ambiguous. However, I'd argue that since a tree cannot eat something, you're pretty safe writing this sentence.

_________________

Brett Beach-Kimball | Manhattan GMAT Instructor

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Sep 2010
Posts: 185
Schools: MBA, Thunderbird School of Global Management / BA, Wesleyan University
Followers: 96

Kudos [?]: 211 [0], given: 7

### Show Tags

06 Jan 2011, 19:12
monarc,

Good question. Let's dive into the difference between "have been" and "had been"...

"Have been" is used for an action from the past that is still in progress. For example:

"I have been walking since 2:00 p.m., and I'm not tired yet!"
"I have been searching for my dog all month, but we haven't found him!"

Notice how in these examples, there is no past tense verb in the sentence and I am still walking/searching. As a result, I use "have been" (present perfect tense).

On the other hand, "had been" is used for an action that happened before something else in the sentence occurred. For example:

"I had been walking for six hours before I stepped on a rock and sprained my ankle."
"I had been searching for nine hours before I decided to give up."

Notice how in these examples, you do have a past tense verb in the sentence ("stepped" and "decided") that describes something that occurred after the first thing started. Since you have an ongoing action in the way past and another action in the past that comes later in time than the first action, you need to use "had been" (past perfect tense).

Finally, notice that it doesn't matter which part comes first; the past perfect part can follow the past tense part in the sentence even though the order in which they occurred is the reverse. Just remember that if there are two things that happened at different times in the past, you'll need to use past perfect somewhere. For example:

"Before I stepped on a rock and sprained my ankle, I had been walking for six hours."
"I decided to give up after I had been searching for nine hours."

Happy studying!

Brett
_________________

Brett Beach-Kimball | Manhattan GMAT Instructor

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Intern
Joined: 21 Jun 2011
Posts: 44
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

07 Sep 2011, 08:41
mainhoon wrote:
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

+1 for C.

First read through: "and" is needed to keep original meaning of sentence.

A: the sentence is ambiguous...is the 36 foot wingspan believed to be the largest flying creature? nope, A out.
D and E: ",which" refers to the thing (noun) right before the comma, so we will have the same issues as A.

between B and C, chose C because "that" in choice B can refer to the wingspan OR Quetzalcoatlus.
Intern
Joined: 29 Apr 2011
Posts: 41
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 9 [0], given: 3

SC - Pls Help Q2...(17/11/11) [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Nov 2011, 09:33
Hi guys, Explanations will be MOST USEFUL and any suggestions to improve on the concepts i'm going wrong on are MOST WELCOME

Q. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet , believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

A. believed to be
B. and that is believed to be
C. and it is believed to have been
D. which was, it is believed,
E. which is believed to be

In this questions i ticked answer Choice E. Can you help me figure out why answer choice C is better suited.. why an 'and' is required ?
Manager
Status: Enjoying the MBA journey :)
Joined: 09 Sep 2011
Posts: 137
Location: United States (DC)
Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
WE: Corporate Finance (Other)
Followers: 19

Kudos [?]: 120 [1] , given: 16

Re: SC - Pls Help Q2...(17/11/11) [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Nov 2011, 10:14
1
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Here's the explanation.

Let's consider the question stem, specifically the underlined part. Here, 'believed to be' is an adjective modifier/clause and it is supposed to modify the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus'. However, the adjective modifier/clause should modify the noun immediately before. In this case, the noun before it is '36 feet'. Hence the modifier incorrectly modifies the wrong noun.
Now, let's look for an answer which will resolve this issue.

Option A - incorrect for the reason mentioned above.

Option B - This option connects the clause 'believed to be ...' using the conjunction 'and'. However, 'that' in the answer incorrectly modifies the clause 'the Quetzalcoatlus had a wing span of 36 feet' instead of only modifying the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus'. Hence this is incorrect as well.

Option C - This option correctly modifies the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus' by using the pronoun 'it' for reference and connecting the adjective modifier using the conjunction 'and'.

Option D - this is very ambiguous and also incorrectly uses the relative pronoun 'which' to modify the noun '36 feet' immediately preceding it.

Option E - this option also incorrectly modifies the noun '36 feet' immediately preceding the adjective modifier 'believed to be ...'.

Hope this helps.

Cheers!
_________________

MBA Candidate 2015 | Georgetown University

Director
Status: No dream is too large, no dreamer is too small
Joined: 14 Jul 2010
Posts: 651
Followers: 42

Kudos [?]: 863 [0], given: 39

Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Nov 2011, 11:39
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be [an verb required for passive purpose]
(B) and that is believed to be [Awkward]
(C) and it is believed to have been [Correct]
(D) which was, it is believed, [Awkward]
(E) WHICH is believed to be [Awkward]
_________________

Collections:-
PSof OG solved by GC members: http://gmatclub.com/forum/collection-ps-with-solution-from-gmatclub-110005.html
DS of OG solved by GC members: http://gmatclub.com/forum/collection-ds-with-solution-from-gmatclub-110004.html
100 GMAT PREP Quantitative collection http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-problem-collections-114358.html
Collections of work/rate problems with solutions http://gmatclub.com/forum/collections-of-work-rate-problem-with-solutions-118919.html
Mixture problems in a file with best solutions: http://gmatclub.com/forum/mixture-problems-with-best-and-easy-solutions-all-together-124644.html

GMAT Pill Representative
Joined: 14 Apr 2009
Posts: 2050
Location: New York, NY
Followers: 387

Kudos [?]: 1328 [0], given: 8

### Show Tags

27 Nov 2011, 17:24
SudiptoGmat wrote:
Its a bad question...all options are wrong.

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet is in wrong structure here..

Well, not quite. It may not be a familiar way for most people to write, but on the GMAT, this structure is OK.

It's basically what we identify as Framework #3: [phrase], [main sentence]

Here the [phrase] - "A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago]"

The [main sentence] = "The Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet."

So the structure is: [Phrase], [main sentence].
The [phrase] describes the subject of the main sentence - which in this case is the Quetzalcoatlus. Does it make sense? Is the Quetzalcoatlus a huge flying reptile that died out? Sure. Sounds fine.

Of course, you can also rewrite the sentence like so:

"The Quetzalcoatlus, a huge flying reptile that died out..."

Both versions are OK.

As for the question itself, here we want (C). Since there's a comma after "36 feet" - the phrase afterwards should describe the "36 feet." That is, UNLESS what follows is actually not a phrase. (A), (D), and (E) are all phrases that cannot make sense in this structure.

(B) does not make sense because "that is believed to be..." needs to describe the 36 feet, which doesn't make sense.

Only (C) says "and it is believed to have been..." - which continues the sentence and says "it" to reference the reptile. NOW, what follows: "the largest flying creature" accurately describes the "it" - the Quetzalcoatlus.

So (C) is the only one that makes sense.
Intern
Status: Mission MBA
Joined: 02 Jul 2010
Posts: 45
Schools: ISB, IIMs
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 14 [0], given: 5

Re: Sc : huge flying reptile [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Dec 2011, 01:43
ingoditrust wrote:
C is correcto

in choice B: I believe, "that" correctly modifies Quetzalcoatlus.
in Choice C: "It" also modifies Quetzalcoatlus correctly.

Why "believed to have been" is preferred over the "believed to be"
Intern
Joined: 19 Dec 2011
Posts: 3
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

16 Feb 2012, 11:44
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
Intern
Joined: 19 Dec 2011
Posts: 3
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

16 Feb 2012, 11:45
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 945
Followers: 302

Kudos [?]: 823 [0], given: 25

### Show Tags

17 Feb 2012, 01:32
C. All of the others incorrectly modify (or refer to) the wingspan of 36 feet, rather than the Quetzalcoatlus itself. "It," unlike "that," can refer back to the subject of the sentence.
_________________

Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Manager
Joined: 14 Mar 2010
Posts: 82
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 135 [0], given: 44

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Apr 2012, 21:44
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be
_________________

MGMAT CAT MATH http://gmatclub.com/forum/mgmat-cat-math-144609.html
MGMAT SC SUMMARY: http://gmatclub.com/forum/mgmat-sc-summary-144610.html

Manager
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 174
Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, General Management
GMAT 1: 750 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.69
WE: Analyst (Mutual Funds and Brokerage)
Followers: 7

Kudos [?]: 47 [1] , given: 13

Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Apr 2012, 22:07
1
KUDOS
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be
Incorrect: This is saying that "36 feet" is "believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen. Incorrect modifier.

(B) and that is believed to be
Incorrect: The use of "that' is incorrect. "That" cannot refer back to the reptile. "It" would have to be used instead.

(C) and it is believed to have been
Correct:

(D) which was, it is believed,
Incorrect: Again, incorrect modifier. Says "36 feet" was believed . . .

(E) which is believed to be
Incorrect: Modifier issue again
Intern
Joined: 23 Jun 2011
Posts: 32
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Technology
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V35
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 16 [0], given: 22

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 May 2012, 03:38
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) and it is believed to have been
B) and it is believed to be
C)Both are correct
Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 3633
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Followers: 717

Kudos [?]: 5569 [0], given: 322

Re: Need clarification between "To be" or " to have been" [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 May 2012, 07:34
Have been is more appropriate for the simple reason that you cannot use the present tense to be. As it will mean that, the animals are still existent. On the contrary, have been denotes, that the animals existed in the past but are not so at this point: have been thus seals the rear end of the phenomenon, which is the reality now.
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Manager
Affiliations: Project Management Professional (PMP)
Joined: 30 Jun 2011
Posts: 213
Location: New Delhi, India
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 67 [0], given: 12

Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Jun 2012, 21:37
Good Q.. OA is c .. .Please visit below link for further explanation:

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/a-h ... t4056.html
_________________

Best
Vaibhav

If you found my contribution helpful, please click the +1 Kudos button on the left, Thanks

Intern
Joined: 14 Feb 2012
Posts: 6
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GMAT Date: 08-15-2012
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 3

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2012, 23:40
[quote="seekmba"]A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(B) and that is believed to be - awkward

(C) and it is believed to have been - 'it' correctly refers to 'Quetzalcoatlus'. 'it' cannot refer to 'wingspan' because 'wingspan' is the object of the earlier clause. So the pronoun 'it' is unambiguously refering to the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus'

B) is wrong...because, it states about the current scenario; however the above sentence targets for long past.
Here is the similar kind of example, we used to say in couple of occasions -

The Taj Mahal is said to have been built in mughal era, (Use Present Perfect to refer Past incidents in current time)
However,
The Taj Mahal is said to be renovated soon. (Use Present Infinitive\Simple Present Tense to refer current incident in current time)

And (C) is my choice, that follows my above logic.
Re: believed to be   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2012, 23:40

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10    Next  [ 200 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 0 04 Sep 2007, 05:56
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 0 30 Jun 2007, 21:06
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 0 01 Jan 2011, 06:09
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 0 01 Mar 2007, 17:39
a huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 0 06 Jan 2011, 19:12
Display posts from previous: Sort by