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A long-term health study that followed a group of people who

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A long-term health study that followed a group of people who [#permalink] New post 16 Apr 2007, 22:01
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A long-term health study that followed a group of people who were age 35 in 1950 found that those whose weight increased by approximately half a kilogram or one pound per year after the age of 35 tended, on the whole, to live longer than those who maintained the weight they had at age 35. This finding seems at variance with other studies that have associated weight gain with a host of health problems that tend to lower life expectancy.

Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparently conflicting findings?
(A) As people age, muscle and bone tissue tends to make up a smaller and smaller proportion of total body weight.
(B) Individuals who reduce their cholesterol levels by losing weight can thereby also reduce their risk of dying from heart attacks or strokes.
(C) Smokers, who tend to be leaner than nonsmokers, tend to have shorter life spans than nonsmokers.
(D) The normal deterioration of the human immune system with age can be slowed down by a reduction in the number of calories consumed.
(E) Diets that tend to lead to weight gain often contain not only excess fat but also unhealthful concentrations of sugar and sodium.

Give reasons for ur choices...
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 [#permalink] New post 16 Apr 2007, 22:34
This one is tough...

Is it C? :?

The conflicting finding as mentioned in the argument is that ppl whose weight increased steadily (a pound per year) lived longer than those whose weight was pretty much the same. This is conflicting because normally, weight gain is associated with bad health.

A - irrelevant
B - further highlights the why it's conflicting, so doesn't help to explain.
C - yes, if maintaining weight, while others are gaining weight as they age, is due to smoking, and smokers tend to have shorter life spans than nonsmokers, then this explains why those who are maintaining weight live shorter...the weakness in this answer choice is that we don't know whether those who maintained weight are smokers...
D - reduction in the number of calories consumed does not necessarily lead to weight loss as those who eat a lot and exercise a lot may lose weight...
E - further highlights the why it's conflicting, so doesn't help to explain.


Not sure on this one...
c'est difficile...
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 [#permalink] New post 16 Apr 2007, 23:05
C it is...
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 00:27
C by POE.

A is irrelevant.
D is a little open to assumptions.
B and E tend to reinforce the fact that more weight means bad health and hence shorter life span.
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 00:36
To be honset, C did stand out for me but not for the right reasons. It's a good question. Ricokevin's explanation is very good here. Smoker's are leaner but not because they're healthier.
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 02:48
ricokevin wrote:
This one is tough...

Is it C? :?

The conflicting finding as mentioned in the argument is that ppl whose weight increased steadily (a pound per year) lived longer than those whose weight was pretty much the same. This is conflicting because normally, weight gain is associated with bad health.

A - irrelevant
B - further highlights the why it's conflicting, so doesn't help to explain.
C - yes, if maintaining weight, while others are gaining weight as they age, is due to smoking, and smokers tend to have shorter life spans than nonsmokers, then this explains why those who are maintaining weight live shorter...the weakness in this answer choice is that we don't know whether those who maintained weight are smokers...
D - reduction in the number of calories consumed does not necessarily lead to weight loss as those who eat a lot and exercise a lot may lose weight...
E - further highlights the why it's conflicting, so doesn't help to explain.


Not sure on this one...
c'est difficile...


Hi ricokevin,what you said in C is only one side of the story ie maintaining weight causes shorter life but what about the part that weight gain is associated with health problems??...The problem with C is that we dont know whether Smokers are gaining weight at the same time or not...
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 07:57
vineetgupta wrote:
ricokevin wrote:
This one is tough...

Is it C? :?

The conflicting finding as mentioned in the argument is that ppl whose weight increased steadily (a pound per year) lived longer than those whose weight was pretty much the same. This is conflicting because normally, weight gain is associated with bad health.

A - irrelevant
B - further highlights the why it's conflicting, so doesn't help to explain.
C - yes, if maintaining weight, while others are gaining weight as they age, is due to smoking, and smokers tend to have shorter life spans than nonsmokers, then this explains why those who are maintaining weight live shorter...the weakness in this answer choice is that we don't know whether those who maintained weight are smokers...
D - reduction in the number of calories consumed does not necessarily lead to weight loss as those who eat a lot and exercise a lot may lose weight...
E - further highlights the why it's conflicting, so doesn't help to explain.


Not sure on this one...
c'est difficile...


Hi ricokevin,what you said in C is only one side of the story ie maintaining weight causes shorter life but what about the part that weight gain is associated with health problems??...The problem with C is that we dont know whether Smokers are gaining weight at the same time or not...



What's at issue here? The finding that those gaining weight after the age of 35 tend to live longer than those who don't gain weight. This runs counter to what we've been made to believe that weight gain is harmful and leads to lower life expectancy.

What helps resolve this paradox - what's the paradox again? Weight gain is not so bad for health whereas non-weight gain tends to lower life expectancy.

The choice C - Smokers tend to be leaner than non-smokers (lesser in weight) and yet have shorter life spans - clearly here's an example that supports the theory that leaner doesn't necessarily mean longer life span because the Low-Weight itself could be because of a habit that might be life-threatening.

Thus C stands even though we don't know whether our LOW WEIGHT people are LOW WEIGHT because they smoke. In fact we don't need to get into HOW or WHY these people have low weights. We just require a choice that can support the argument. C does that.
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C - BEST ANSWER [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 08:33
P1 - Study done on 35 year olds found that if wt increase of 1lb after 35 tend to live longer than those maintaining the weight.
P2 - This is different from other studies showing that weight gain brings about a host of other problems lowering LE

E - Irr. There is no mention about diets and the excess fat etc
D - This is in accordance with the passage. There is nothing conflicting. it says that if lesser calories are consumed (which means you will loose weight),
the immune system will not deteriorate as fast. Which means you will be lean.
that fast
C - Best Answer. This talks about a lean person who may appear healthy but is not actually healthy. which is in total contrast with weight gain and host of
other problems.
B - This is in accordance with the last line. They will not reduce their life expectancy if they loose weight.
A - Out of Scope
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Re: CR-health study [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 12:02
C by POE.


(A) As people age, muscle and bone tissue tends to make up a smaller and smaller proportion of total body weight.
- Irrelevant.
(B) Individuals who reduce their cholesterol levels by losing weight can thereby also reduce their risk of dying from heart attacks or strokes.
- This reflects the conclusions of studies that associate weight gain with other health problems.
(D) The normal deterioration of the human immune system with age can be slowed down by a reduction in the number of calories consumed.
- Same as B
(E) Diets that tend to lead to weight gain often contain not only excess fat but also unhealthful concentrations of sugar and sodium.
- Cannot explain the results of the long-term health study.

Even though C seems to limit the interpretation to apply to specific categories - smokers/non-smokers, it offers the only explanation as to why people who gained weight after 35 lived longer those who did not - the long-lived ones were non-smokers.

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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 12:19
Process Of Elimination [POE]

(A) As people age, muscle and bone tissue tends to make up a smaller and smaller proportion of total body weight.

This could be a good answer, but requires external assumptions that the muscle and bone tissues could be increased or strengthened by gaining weight .. but A is OUT

(B) Individuals who reduce their cholesterol levels by losing weight can thereby also reduce their risk of dying from heart attacks or strokes.

This strengthens one side of the conflict and thus does NOT resolve the conflict.

(D) The normal deterioration of the human immune system with age can be slowed down by a reduction in the number of calories consumed.

This strengthens one side of the conflict .. D is OUT

(E) Diets that tend to lead to weight gain often contain not only excess fat but also unhealthful concentrations of sugar and sodium.

Same as D, this strengthens one side of the conflict


Only C left and let's examine it.

(C) Smokers, who tend to be leaner than nonsmokers, tend to have shorter life spans than nonsmokers.

Associating the increase in weight with nonsmoking resolves the paradox and thus the argument makes sense. According to this answer, fact, nonsmokers tend to weight more than smokers and this validates the assumption that there is another fact or assumption associated with either side of the conflict.


ANSWER: C
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 15:41
C.
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 19:48
(C)
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 22:25
Let me get this straight...
According to C,non-smokers are having weight gain(smokers are leaner than non-smokers)...so sccording to the second finding shouldnt non-smokers have shorter life span to show that weight gain has other associated problems and resolve this paradox...this is confusing me...where am I going wrong??
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2007, 22:40
[C] by POE
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2007, 10:12
Has to be C
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2007, 10:12
Has to be C
  [#permalink] 19 Apr 2007, 10:12
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