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A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will

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Re: A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will [#permalink] New post 13 May 2014, 18:53
egmat wrote:
honchos wrote:
ChrisLele wrote:
A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will typically invest that money in hundreds of companies, rarely holding more than one percent of the shares of any particular corporation.

(A) companies, rarely holding more than one percent

The clause 'rarely holding...' correctly modifies the subjet 'mutual fund.'

(B) companies, and it is rare to hold at least one percent or more

Here the 'it' is vague and unnecessary.

(C) companies and rarely do they hold more than one percent

Who is the 'they'? If we are referring to the companies than doing so is misleading. The original sentence makes it clear the mutual fund is doing the holding.

(D) companies, so that they rarely hold more than one percent

Same as (C).

(E) companies; rarely do they hold one percent or more

Once again, the misleading 'they.'



Sir Can you explain Option A little bit more. Thanks!


Hi,

Choice A correctly uses the comma + verb- ing modifier to modify the preceding clause. The comma + verb –ing modifier presents either additional information about the preceding clause or the result of that clause. Here it presents the result of the preceding clause. So, essentially it means that the author is trying to say that because a mutual fund with a lot of money generally invests in a number of companies, it rarely holds more than one percent of the shares of any particular company.

Now typically, the information given in the comma+ verb –ing modifier should make sense with the subject of the modified clause. Let’s check the same here:

A mutual fund (with a particular feature) rarely holds more than one percent of the shares of any particular corporation.

As you can see, the information given in the modifier (holding…corporation) does make sense with the subject of the modified clause (a mutual fund).

To understand the concept and various uses of comma + verb –ing modifier more, please refer to our in depth article on the subject here :

https://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=3465

Hope the above discussion helps! :)

Regards,
Neeti.


Hello Neeti & egmat,

Thanks for the detailed explanation, it's very helpful. Through POE I landed on the correct answer but i'm a little concerned with a gap in my knowledge -- can you please help clear it up?

- I know that Semi-Colon's are used to join two independent clauses. We don't need a coordinating conjunction when it's a semi-colon. Correct?
- If it's just a common and -ing modifier, the second pat will modify the first part and it DOESN't need to touch. Correct? Does the second half need to be an independent clause or can the subject and the verb be split over the comma?
- if there is a comma and a coordinating conjunction after the comma, what exactly does that imply? do they both need to be independent or can they have the S-V split over the two clauses.

Would appreciate your help!
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Re: A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will [#permalink] New post 16 May 2014, 00:59
Expert's post
russ9 wrote:
Hello Neeti & egmat,

Thanks for the detailed explanation, it's very helpful. Through POE I landed on the correct answer but i'm a little concerned with a gap in my knowledge -- can you please help clear it up?

- I know that Semi-Colon's are used to join two independent clauses. We don't need a coordinating conjunction when it's a semi-colon. Correct?
- If it's just a common and -ing modifier, the second pat will modify the first part and it DOESN't need to touch. Correct? Does the second half need to be an independent clause or can the subject and the verb be split over the comma?
- if there is a comma and a coordinating conjunction after the comma, what exactly does that imply? do they both need to be independent or can they have the S-V split over the two clauses.

Would appreciate your help!


Hi russ9,
Thank you for the post. :-)

Let’s discuss your questions one by one.

1. I know that Semi-Colon's are used to join two independent clauses. We don't need a coordinating conjunction when it's a semi-colon. Correct?

Yes, you are absolutely correct. A semi-colon is sufficient to join two independent clauses. So, we don’t need to use any coordinating conjunction with a semi-colon. Let’s take these official questions as examples:

OFFICIAL QUESTION
• A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers;
• the question is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animal’s horns have been trimmed.

OFFICIAL QUESTION
• Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755;
• their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added.
Each of the above examples has two independent clauses connected with a semi-colon.




2. If it's just a common and -ing modifier, the second pat will modify the first part and it DOESN't need to touch. Correct? Does the second half need to be an independent clause or can the subject and the verb be split over the comma?

In my understanding, your question is regarding the usage of the verb-ing modifier. I’ll suggest that you go through the following articles on the verb-ing modifiers:
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html#p1101074
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html#p1102952
If you any more questions once you have finished the article, please post them here. We’ll take the discussion forward from there.


3. if there is a comma and a coordinating conjunction after the comma, what exactly does that imply? do they both need to be independent or can they have the S-V split over the two clauses.

If a ‘comma + coordinating conjunction’ combination is used to split two independent clauses then there must be a separate subject-verb pair for each of the clauses. Two independent clauses cannot have S-V split over the two clauses.

OFFICIAL QUESTION
• Long before it was fashionable to be an expatriate, Josephine Baker made Paris her home,
• and she remained in France during the Second World War as a performer and an intelligence agent for the Resistance.
In the above sentence, two independent clauses are connected using ‘comma + and’.

Note that, ‘comma + the coordinating conjunction’ is also used to connect parallel lists. That is a different usage and there we won’t find any S-V pairs.




Hope the above discussion helps! :-)
Regards,

Deepak
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Re: A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will [#permalink] New post 21 May 2014, 12:56
Hi e-gmat,

Thanks for your insight on this, it was totally useful.

However, I have 1 question regarding the last option E. I understand it has a pronoun problem, but would it be correct had the pronoun problem been resolved

companies; rarely does it hold one percent or more shares.

The semicolon rule says, the part following the semicolon should be able to stand alone as a sentence.

I intend to ask, can "does it hold one percent or more shares" stand alone as a sentence (please excuse the pronoun thing here.)
or
something like this would be better, Rarely it holds one percent or more shares. (does removed.)

Thanks. :)
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Re: A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will [#permalink] New post 22 May 2014, 10:17
Expert's post
Aldorado wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Thanks for your insight on this, it was totally useful.

However, I have 1 question regarding the last option E. I understand it has a pronoun problem, but would it be correct had the pronoun problem been resolved

companies; rarely does it hold one percent or more shares.

The semicolon rule says, the part following the semicolon should be able to stand alone as a sentence.

I intend to ask, can "does it hold one percent or more shares" stand alone as a sentence (please excuse the pronoun thing here.)
or
something like this would be better, Rarely it holds one percent or more shares. (does removed.)

Thanks. :)


Hi @Aldorado,

I'm happy to hear that our response helped. :-)

"More than one percent of shares" is a better construction than "one percent or more shares," since "more" requires "than". But leaving that issue aside, yes, "rarely does it hold one percent or more shares" can stand on its own. "Rarely" is required at the beginning for this construction to hold. "Does" at the beginning would make it a question.

"Rarely it holds one percent or more shares" is incorrect. "It rarely holds one percent or more shares" would be correct. This construction is more about usage than grammar; a fluent speaker of English would be able to differentiate between the two constructions, but the GMAT doesn't test constructions in which you need to 'hear' the correct answer. So I wouldn't worry about this particular issue.

I hope this helps.

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: A mutual fund having billions of dollars in assets will   [#permalink] 22 May 2014, 10:17
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