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A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation

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A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation [#permalink] New post 19 Nov 2012, 20:52
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A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

The argument in this passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[B] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

Pls explain how you comprehend two negation in a sentence?

OA Post discussion..
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Re: A newborn kangaroo [#permalink] New post 20 Nov 2012, 03:55
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Vineetk wrote:
A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

The argument in this passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[B] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

Pls explain how you comprehend two negation in a sentence?

OA Post discussion..


Take some time to understand the argument first.

"A joey has a short gestation period but its forelimbs are well developed so that it can climb into its mother’s pouch for further development."

The argument is telling you that the reason the forelimbs of a joey are well developed is that it needs to climb into its mother's pouch.

"marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed so newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches."

It further states that marsupial lions were also born with only forelimbs developed. So they must have needed to climb into their mother's pouches too. The argument assumes here that forelimbs were developed for a reason and that reason was 'climbing into mother's pouch'. It assumes that if the lions did not have a need for the forelimbs to be developed, the forelimbs would not have been developed. Since the forelimbs were developed at birth, it was for a reason. Hence E is correct.

As for D, the argument is not assuming this.
D - Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.

The argument says that developed forelimbs implies crawling into mother's pouch. It doesn't say that crawling into mothers' pouches implies developed forelimbs. Notice what has been found and what has been implied. It has been found that these lions had developed forelimbs. This implies that they crawled into pouches.

If we were given that it has been found that the lions crawled into their mothers' pouches and that this implies that their forelimbs must have been developed, then we could have said that the argument is assuming that without developed forelimbs, the lions could not have crawled into their mothers' pouches. Hence D is not correct.

It comes down to understanding conditional sentences.
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Re: A newborn kangaroo [#permalink] New post 20 Nov 2012, 02:51
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Vineetk wrote:
A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

The argument in this passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[B] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

Pls explain how you comprehend two negation in a sentence?

OA Post discussion..


Conclusion -- > Only forelimbs developed means marsupial lions had a certain use for them.
Premise --> Developed forelimbs used by kangaroos for a certain use.
Assumption --> Reason for development same in both animals (or) Development useful in both animals.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
clearly addresses this assumption adn also passes the LEN test.

Negating , we get:
Newborn marsupial lions may have had only their forelimbs developed even if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

This clearly kills the conclusion. If the development was useless, then we cannot say that the lions would have used them for a certain requirement.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Answer is E.

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Re: A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation [#permalink] New post 25 Dec 2013, 05:27
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A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

Both 'D' AND 'E' appear to be contenders. Lets see them one by one.............

[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
Means that if newborn marsupial have both forelimb and hind limb developed, they could not have been able to climb their mother's pouches. how can this be true? they may not have needed to climb now but to say thay they could not have climbed cannot be true...This assumption is not implied.....

[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions. This is the correct assumption. Forelimbs were developed so they could climb their mothers pouches for further development of their forelimbs....IT HAD A PURPOSE... Hence CORRECT...


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Re: A newborn kangaroo [#permalink] New post 20 Nov 2012, 17:47
After 1'40'', I can only eliminate A, B, C.
I didn't get the meaning of D and E, then I make a guess on D which is wrong.
I have a question here. After 1'30'', if you only eliminate 3 out 5 answers, you make a educated guess, or spend extra 1 more minute. I am really weak at RC. So I try to save as much time for RC by finish SC in 1 minute and CR in 1 minute and half. If I get stuck in CR for 1'30'', I usually POE as much as I can, then make a guess. Is that a proper way to do?
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Re: A newborn kangaroo [#permalink] New post 21 Nov 2012, 19:53
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paladin3828 wrote:
After 1'40'', I can only eliminate A, B, C.
I didn't get the meaning of D and E, then I make a guess on D which is wrong.
I have a question here. After 1'30'', if you only eliminate 3 out 5 answers, you make a educated guess, or spend extra 1 more minute. I am really weak at RC. So I try to save as much time for RC by finish SC in 1 minute and CR in 1 minute and half. If I get stuck in CR for 1'30'', I usually POE as much as I can, then make a guess. Is that a proper way to do?


Sure. No point wasting too much time on one question. That said, during practice, ensure that you understand the logic used in every question and give as much time as required to do it.
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Re: A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation [#permalink] New post 25 Dec 2013, 00:34
I believe that both D and E fill the gap and hence can be considered right answers
Argument conclusion is: Only forelimbs develoved in new born Lion ----> These forelimbs must have been used for climbing in mother's pouch
Assumption: New born lions could only climb in mothers pouch by using these develoved forelimbs and there was no other way by which these Lions could climb in their mother's pouch

Negate D: Newborn marsupial lions (that crawled into their mothers’ pouches) could have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth (in simple words, New lions could climb in their mother's pouch even if they didn't have forelimbs)--This is exact match nad Hence weakens the argument

Negate E: As mentioned in earlier post will mean (in simple words): the forelimbs could not be there if there was not practical usage of forlimbs, this negation also weakens the argument.

Choice D is still somewhat nearer to the argument as it directly address the "climbing in mother's pouch" where as E discussed more in general. But Both D and E weaken the argument.
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Re: A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation [#permalink] New post 30 Dec 2013, 22:58
Expert's post
KushVishal wrote:
I believe that both D and E fill the gap and hence can be considered right answers
Argument conclusion is: Only forelimbs develoved in new born Lion ----> These forelimbs must have been used for climbing in mother's pouch
Assumption: New born lions could only climb in mothers pouch by using these develoved forelimbs and there was no other way by which these Lions could climb in their mother's pouch

Negate D: Newborn marsupial lions (that crawled into their mothers’ pouches) could have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth (in simple words, New lions could climb in their mother's pouch even if they didn't have forelimbs)--This is exact match nad Hence weakens the argument

Negate E: As mentioned in earlier post will mean (in simple words): the forelimbs could not be there if there was not practical usage of forlimbs, this negation also weakens the argument.

Choice D is still somewhat nearer to the argument as it directly address the "climbing in mother's pouch" where as E discussed more in general. But Both D and E weaken the argument.


No, (D) is not correct. Only (E) is the correct answer. Check out this post for a detailed explanation on this question:
http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2012/12 ... tatements/

Here is a post on Conditional Statements which you need to understand for this question (and many more such questions):
http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2012/11 ... tatements/
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Re: A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation [#permalink] New post 31 Dec 2013, 08:24
Vineetk wrote:
[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[b] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.



The magic word is "usage" here. Once I read the text, the assumption followed naturally: we need a link between the lion and the pouch. Skimming the question, I finally found the word "use" in E that matches my hypothesis.

E) Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions

E answered perfectly to the argument by stating a new link between the lion and the pouch.

Hope it helps

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Re: A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation   [#permalink] 31 Dec 2013, 08:24
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