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A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the

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A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:06
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A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics. However, research conducted by an independent laboratory showed that some errors were made during analysis of the new element, and therefore, metals currently used in space electronics cannot be replaced with this element.

The argument above is flawed because it
(A)presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.

(B)fails to prove that independent research laboratories are more capable in chemical analysis than the laboratories that tested the new element.

(C)fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.

(D)fails to consider that laboratory tests conducted by only two institutions may not be sufficient to reach a definite conclusion.

(E)presumes, without providing justification, that results of research in which several errors were made can be considered to be trustworthy.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by guerrero25 on 17 Apr 2013, 22:40, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:27
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guerrero25 wrote:
A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics. However, research conducted by an independent laboratory showed that some errors were made during analysis of the new element, and therefore, metals currently used in space electronics cannot be replaced with this element.

The argument above is flawed because it
(A)presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.

(B)fails to prove that independent research laboratories are more capable in chemical analysis than the laboratories that tested the new element.

(C)fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.

(D)fails to consider that laboratory tests conducted by only two institutions may not be sufficient to reach a definite conclusion.

(E)presumes, without providing justification, that results of research in which several errors were made can be considered to be trustworthy.



I believe it's A.

If you read it carefully, you'll see that the independent firm found errors in the original firm's analysis... the independent firm didn't actually do their own analysis of the material, all they did was invalidate the original analysis. This means that they cannot say that the CONCLUSION is wrong, only that the PREMISES are flawed.

For example, I could do a study that says that "The sky is blue because giant monkeys painted it that way" You could then do a study that shows that my analysis is wrong, but that doesn't mean that the sky isn't blue or that my conclusion is wrong.

The argument is based off of that - because the analysis is wrong, the conclusion must be wrong too. This is a logical fallacy. Therefore the answer is A.
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:41
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guerrero25 wrote:
A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics. However, research conducted by an independent laboratory showed that some errors were made during analysis of the new element, and therefore, metals currently used in space electronics cannot be replaced with this element.

The argument above is flawed because it
(A)presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.

(B)fails to prove that independent research laboratories are more capable in chemical analysis than the laboratories that tested the new element.

(C)fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.

(D)fails to consider that laboratory tests conducted by only two institutions may not be sufficient to reach a definite conclusion.

(E)presumes, without providing justification, that results of research in which several errors were made can be considered to be trustworthy.


Premise: the new element can be used to substitute for metals currently used in space electronics
Premise: some errors were made during analysis of the new element
Conclusion: metals currently used in space electronics cannot be replaced with the new element

Failure: "some errors" does not mean further analyses will be wrong.

Analyze each answer

(A)presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.
Wrong. Out of scope.

(B)fails to prove that independent research laboratories are more capable in chemical analysis than the laboratories that tested the new element.
Wrong. Nothing about the capabilities of the two labs. Out of scope

(C)fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.
Correct. see explanation above.

(D)fails to consider that laboratory tests conducted by only two institutions may not be sufficient to reach a definite conclusion.
Wrong. nothing about whether a conclusion is sufficient or not sufficient.

(E)presumes, without providing justification, that results of research in which several errors were made can be considered to be trustworthy.
Wrong. The stimulus does not mention that results that have errors are trustworthy.
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Last edited by pqhai on 17 Apr 2013, 22:42, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:42
dave785 wrote:
guerrero25 wrote:
A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics. However, research conducted by an independent laboratory showed that some errors were made during analysis of the new element, and therefore, metals currently used in space electronics cannot be replaced with this element.

The argument above is flawed because it
(A)presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.

(B)fails to prove that independent research laboratories are more capable in chemical analysis than the laboratories that tested the new element.

(C)fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.

(D)fails to consider that laboratory tests conducted by only two institutions may not be sufficient to reach a definite conclusion.

(E)presumes, without providing justification, that results of research in which several errors were made can be considered to be trustworthy.



I believe it's A.

If you read it carefully, you'll see that the independent firm found errors in the original firm's analysis... the independent firm didn't actually do their own analysis of the material, all they did was invalidate the original analysis. This means that they cannot say that the CONCLUSION is wrong, only that the PREMISES are flawed.

For example, I could do a study that says that "The sky is blue because giant monkeys painted it that way" You could then do a study that shows that my analysis is wrong, but that doesn't mean that the sky isn't blue or that my conclusion is wrong.

The argument is based off of that - because the analysis is wrong, the conclusion must be wrong too. This is a logical fallacy. Therefore the answer is A.



thanks for a solid explanation ! ! .. It's crystal clear now why " A " is correct .
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:46
dave785 wrote:
guerrero25 wrote:
A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics. However, research conducted by an independent laboratory showed that some errors were made during analysis of the new element, and therefore, metals currently used in space electronics cannot be replaced with this element.

The argument above is flawed because it
(A)presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.

(B)fails to prove that independent research laboratories are more capable in chemical analysis than the laboratories that tested the new element.

(C)fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.

(D)fails to consider that laboratory tests conducted by only two institutions may not be sufficient to reach a definite conclusion.

(E)presumes, without providing justification, that results of research in which several errors were made can be considered to be trustworthy.



I believe it's A.

If you read it carefully, you'll see that the independent firm found errors in the original firm's analysis... the independent firm didn't actually do their own analysis of the material, all they did was invalidate the original analysis. This means that they cannot say that the CONCLUSION is wrong, only that the PREMISES are flawed.

For example, I could do a study that says that "The sky is blue because giant monkeys painted it that way" You could then do a study that shows that my analysis is wrong, but that doesn't mean that the sky isn't blue or that my conclusion is wrong.

The argument is based off of that - because the analysis is wrong, the conclusion must be wrong too. This is a logical fallacy. Therefore the answer is A.


Great explanation, Now I understand the logic. Totally got your ideal.
Thanks!
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:05
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i somewhere get a feeling that A has not been structured properly to fit as an answer
i agree that proving that analysis is wrong does not prove that conclusion is wrong but A is not hinting on those lines
i feel that A wud have been the answer had the argument been structured as follow :

premise 1 :A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics

premise 2 : however ,a second laboratory is not able to prove the findings of previous analysis

conclusion : hence the the second laboratory concluded that the findings of previous analysis are faulty
now A wud have ideally been the answer .

but given the argument i guess A does not fit the bill

kindly tell us the source of this question
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:32
neha24 wrote:
i somewhere get a feeling that A has not been structured properly to fit as an answer
i agree that proving that analysis is wrong does not prove that conclusion is wrong but A is not hinting on those lines
i feel that A wud have been the answer had the argument been structured as follow :

premise 1 :A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the Moon showed that the new element could be used to substitute for several rare and extremely expensive metals used in space electronics

premise 2 : however ,a second laboratory is not able to prove the findings of previous analysis

conclusion : hence the the second laboratory concluded that the findings of previous analysis are faulty
now A wud have ideally been the answer .

but given the argument i guess A does not fit the bill

kindly tell us the source of this question



You incorrectly interpreted the second premise.

The second firm found errors in the way the first form performed the analysis. This means we CANNOT assume the second firm did any actual research on the new chemical element. They therefore cannot make any definitive claim on the first firm's conclusion, only on the validity of their conclusion.

In other words, disproving a positive does NOT logically lead to proving a negative. (check out Cartesian logic for more of this kind of stuff)
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2013, 12:54
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The answer must be A..
Research analysts found something, than someother research companies found errors in the what was intially carried out by the researchers....
Point is the new research did nt put fwd anythn new except the fact that earlier analysts made some mistake...

Hence A must be the answer

Consider kudos If my post helps!!!

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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2013, 04:01
Archit143 wrote:
The answer must be A..
Research analysts found something, than someother research companies found errors in the what was intially carried out by the researchers....
Point is the new research did nt put fwd anythn new except the fact that earlier analysts made some mistake...

Hence A must be the answer

Consider kudos If my post helps!!!

Archit




I know A is true, but would sb plz let me know why C is wrong??
tnx in advnc
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2013, 12:33
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omraan wrote:
Archit143 wrote:
The answer must be A..
Research analysts found something, than someother research companies found errors in the what was intially carried out by the researchers....
Point is the new research did nt put fwd anythn new except the fact that earlier analysts made some mistake...

Hence A must be the answer

Consider kudos If my post helps!!!

Archit




I know A is true, but would sb plz let me know why C is wrong??
tnx in advnc


Hi Omraan. Very good question.

How to attack the question.

This is a flaw of reasoning question, in order to get the correct answer you have to generalize the stimulus to abstract pattern. That makes this kind of question be one of the most difficult types in CR.

I would generalize the stimulus as followings:

A makes a claim that X is true
B found that A has errors
B makes a claim that X is NOT true


The problem here is:
X itself is CORRECT, B, however, found that A (the scientific method) has errors ==> B concludes X is NOT true. That is wrong reasoning. If B wants to prove X is NOT true, B has to find evidences that show X is NOT true, not evidences that show A has errors in its method.

A says: presumes, without providing justification, that if something is not proved to be true, then it must be wrong.
"Something" = the fact: metals currently used in space electronics can be replaced with this element
"not proved to be true" = the recent analysis does not show the fact is true (the analysis has error)
"then it must be wrong" = the fact that the analysis shows must be wrong.

The research by an independent laboratory only shows the recent analysis has error ==> conclude that the fact "metals currently used in space electronics can be replaced with this element" is wrong ==> Flaw in reasoning.
Hence , A is the correct. answer.


Similar example:
Galileo Galilei discovered that the Earth moves around the Sun.
The Church found that Galileo Galilei had some errors in his method
The Church concluded that "the Earth moves around the Sun" is wrong.


You see the same flaw of reasoning? The fact that "the Earth moves around the Sun" itself is ALWAYS correct.

C is wrong, why?

C says: fails to consider the possibility of further accurate chemical analyses of the new element.

Please see the logical reasoning below:
A makes claim that X is true
B also makes a claim that X is not true
B concludes that X is not true.


==> Flaw of reasoning: Because B makes conclusion based on B's analysis only, so B fails to consider the possibility of further accurate analyses.

This flaw of reasoning DIFFERS from that in the question.

Back to the question, C says "there should be more further accurate analyses"
==> C attacks the argument by focusing on errors of analysis, not errors of the scientific method ==> C does not show the flaw of reasoning we need.

Hope it helps.
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Re: A recent analysis of a new chemical element found on the [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2014, 05:52
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