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# A recent report determined that although only three percent

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A recent report determined that although only three percent [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2003, 06:02
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A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.

The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state highways not covered in the report.
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28 Sep 2010, 07:56
KissGMAT wrote:
regularly is the key word

Can you please explain how ?
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28 Sep 2010, 10:33
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed limit than are drivers who do not.
No. That 33% of vehicles ticketed had radar detectors means that such vehicles are not less likely to be ticketed.

(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
This shows that there were vehicles without radar detectors that were ticketed. Does not help the conclusion.

(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state highways not covered in the report.
We are not concerned with drivers on other highways.

(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the time period covered by the report.

I'm stuck between B & D. They pretty much say the same thing.
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24 Nov 2010, 19:54
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goalsnr wrote:
A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state highways not covered in the report.

Let's look at the question stem first. We need to find an assumption. An assumption is a missing necessary premise. Something that will not only strengthen the conclusion but also be essential to the argument.
An assumption is a statement that needs to be added to the premises for the conclusion to be true.

Premises:

Conclusion: Drivers with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than other drivers.

There must be a disconnect between the premises and conclusion since there is an assumption. Look carefully. Premises give a connection between radar detectors and vehicles that get speeding tickets. While conclusion concludes a relation between radar detectors and vehicles that exceed speed limit. The assumption must then give a connection between vehicles that get speeding tickets and vehicles that exceed speed limit.
Option (B) gives us that relation.

Lets add it to premises and see if the conclusion makes more sense now:

-Drivers who get speeding tickets are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than others. (links speeding tickets to exceed speed limit)

Conclusion: Drivers with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than other drivers. (links radar detectors to exceed speed limit) Perfect!

Option (C) only tells us that people without radar detectors were also ticketed. It doesn't strengthen our conclusion at all.
Option (D) tells us that many vehicles were ticketed multiple times. It doesn't say that these vehicles had radar and had been over speeding regularly. Hence option (D) isn't the missing premise either.
You can also apply the Assumption Negation Technique here. If you negate (B) conclusion cannot be drawn.
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 7119 Location: Pune, India Followers: 2132 Kudos [?]: 13631 [0], given: 222 Re: CR -OG 81 [#permalink] ### Show Tags 25 Nov 2010, 13:13 Expert's post 1 This post was BOOKMARKED sheru34766 wrote: Thanks Karishma. That was helpful. But geesh, , would I be able to put all these together in 2mins? In most CR questions, you will need to break down the stimulus into premises and conclusion. If your question is asking for assumption, then you are looking for missing data. Then you actively search for a missing link between premises and conclusion. With some practice you can very easily and quickly narrow down your choices. Then you can use assumption negation technique in those if you are not certain. Sometimes, you could exceed 2 mins in tricky CR questions but in SC questions you should be generally be done within 1min 30 sec. So it is a good idea to practice pacing yourself using practice tests. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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Re: A recent report determined .. [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2011, 11:25
X=Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors
Y=more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
Z=Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit

The para state that
X->Y and X->Z

Statement B
Z->Y

I think that Statement B is not an assumption. In fact it is drawing a new conclusion.
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05 Jul 2011, 04:48
A recent report determined that although only 2 percent of boaters in Miami have been issued speeding tickets, 40 percent of the boaters issued tickets had received at least one ticket previously. Clearly, boaters who receive a speeding ticket are more likely to exceed the speed limit again in the future than boaters who have never been ticketed for speeding.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the above argument?
A) Boaters in Miami exceed the speed limit more frequently than boaters in other Florida cities.
B) Many boaters that were ticketed for speeding were ticketed more than once in the time period of the report.
C) Miami is more vigilant in ticketing boaters who exceed the speed limit than most other cities.
4) The number of boaters ticketed for speeding during the period of this report is less than the number ticketed during the period of the previous report.
5) During the period of this report, tickets were issued from only one location catching many of the same boaters again and again.

Please explain why B and E differ in meaning?
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA is E
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05 Jul 2011, 05:40

a-recent-report-determined-94309.html

Please search in the future before posting (also please post in the correct subforum).

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A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of d [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2011, 20:58
A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radar detectors, 33 percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state highways not covered in the report.

Hi

This section is seriously my weakness. Maybe I seriously need some logic training! haha...anyway.

I don't understand the reasoning in the OG.

How would you reason this?

thanks

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31 Jul 2011, 01:26
The best way to improve in CR is to start by writing the argument parts(diagramming).

Premise 1:3% of the total vehicles are equipped with Radar detectors.

Conclusion: Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.

The question asks the assumption that links the Conclusion with the Premise. B does exactly that by suggesting that drivers who are caught speeding once are more likely to speed regularly.

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Re: A recent report determined .. [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2011, 16:27
utin wrote:
Hi I don't understand how is this conclusion stated, true logically???

Back Ground Info: 3% vehicles ----Maryland highway drivers ---- with radar detectors
Premise : 33% vehicles -- ticked -- exceeding speed (Radar fixed )

Conclusion :
exceed speed limit( radar fixed) > exceed speed limit ( Radar not fixed )

what i feel is that if 33% vehicles -- ticked -- exceeding speed (Radar fixed ) that means that other 77 % vehicles---ticketed---exceeding speed(radar not fixed) should be true... which is opposite of the conclusion...

Because the CR sentence needs to be read as a SC

A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them.

You are assuming - (thirty-three percent of all vehicles) that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with RD
33% Vehicles - Ticketed - Speed - Had RD
67% Vehicles - No information is there...

But the Stem is - (thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed) for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with RD
Here -
33% ticketed vehicles with RD - Speed limit exceeded
Rest 67% ticketed vehicles with RD - We do not know why they are ticketed !!!

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Re: A recent report determined .. [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2011, 16:36
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Guys, classic scope shift as indicated by mismatch of subject in the main assertion and the assumption choices – driver vs vehicle! The element that needs to be connected for the argument to work is the subject ‘driver’. In choice D the subject morphs into something slightly different, which seem consistent, or even inferable from the argument. Hence B.

Another form of common scope shift is when the author uses a word or concept in two different ways where the intent is to blur the main topic - equivocation. For example, ‘airplanes seats have been designed for safety’ is different from saying ‘airplanes seats are safe’.

Another common shift arises in the main conclusion itself when we find something else comes out of nowhere, in which case the job is to connect that ‘something else’ in the conclusion with something in the premise in order to make the argument work. Hence we make it focal point of assumption hunt.
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23 Aug 2011, 13:26
i didn't get the reasoning. what exacty does the author assume?
The conclusion I had expected was something that would be based on the assumption that:
Vehicles with radar det are more likely to exceed speed limit. (Omit regularly)

Is the author suggesting in the conclusion that the same vehicles have been ticked over and over again and?

The argument words are little vague in this regard. By vehicles I assumed that the author means that different vehicles. Say Vehicle with a number 490 is ticketed thrice. But it still is one number of vehicle ticketed on the highway!

Views welcome!
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A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2011, 16:31
A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles
with radar detectors, 33 percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them.
Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
than are drivers who do not.
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed
limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of
vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the
time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state
highways not covered in the report.

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Re: A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of d [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2011, 21:50
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IMO D. Only 3% of vehicles equipped with radar comprise of 33% of the tickets. Inthis case only two assumptions are possible:

1. The total number of tickets were very less and the card with radars were maximum out of them. For example lets say that out of a total of 100 cars, 3 were equipped with radar and all three were ticketed out of say total of 10 cars ticketed.

2. The cars with radar were ticketed multiple times to form a considerable percentage.

Option D satisfies the second option.
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Re: A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of d [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2011, 01:11
GMATmission, i'm a bit confused here. The conclusion there is that, if radar then likely to speed...... reasoning is that out of 100 only 3 has radar and out of the number of ticked cars 33% is with radar.

Doesn't D oppose the conclusion?

i go for C.
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Re: A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of d [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2012, 03:00
I go with D here if only 3% drivers on Maryland highways equipped their vehicles with radars and 33 percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them then ) many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit must be ticketed more than once.
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Re: A recent report determined that although only 3 percent of d [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2012, 20:51
The answer has to be B. The conclusion makes a jump to the conclusion that "are more like to exceed the speed limit REGULARLY" which has no bearing on the original argument. Option B fills the logic gap and is a required assumption for this conclusion.

Hence, B
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A recent report determined that although only three percent [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2012, 08:55
171. A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their
vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were
equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed
the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed
limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of
vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the
time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state
highways not covered in the report.

I did not understand the question per se .

Can some one please explain ??
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Re: CR Practice ::A recent report determined tha [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2012, 16:44
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It's definitely a tricky one .

The conclusion states that drivers with radar detectors speed more REGULARLY than those who do not carry radar detectors. Notice how I highlighted the word 'regularly.'

The conclusion is based on the fact that 33% of those ticketed carry radar detectors (whereas only 3% of total drivers are ticketed). From this fact alone can we say that radar-detector drivers speed regularly? They obviously sped once - they got a ticket. But there is no way we can say that they speed regularly. So this is an assumption that the argument rests on, the assumption addressed in (B):

(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.

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Re: CR Practice ::A recent report determined tha [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2012, 04:20
shikhar wrote:
171. A recent report determined that although only three percent of drivers on Maryland highways equipped their
vehicles with radar detectors, thirty-three percent of all vehicles ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were
equipped with them. Clearly, drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceed
the speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.
The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed
limit than are drivers who do not.
(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
than are drivers who are not ticketed.
(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of
vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the
time period covered by the report.
(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state
highways not covered in the report.

I did not understand the question per se .

Can some one please explain ??

3% of overall having radar however 33% ticketed with radar. Means this 3% are getting over and over again ticketed.
(a) Drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are less likely to be ticketed for exceeding the speed
limit than are drivers who do not.
--This is weakening the conclusion

(B) Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceed the speed limit regularly
than are drivers who are not ticketed.
-- this is the correct thing which author assumes. Here no radar thing has been mentioned but it supports the conclusion.

(C) The number of vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit was greater than the number of
vehicles that were equipped with radar detectors.
-- this does not give useful info.

(D) Many of the vehicles that were ticketed for exceeding the speed limit were ticketed more than once in the
time period covered by the report.

(E) Drivers on Maryland highways exceeded the speed limit more often than did drivers on other state
highways not covered in the report.
-- this does not give useful info.

Correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: CR Practice ::A recent report determined tha   [#permalink] 18 Mar 2012, 04:20

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