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A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink] New post 14 Jan 2011, 11:29
In C
"Retiring" is not parallel with "of facing"
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink] New post 16 Jan 2011, 12:30

'RECENT study HAS found' .. so 'had' is out

elected to RETIRE... rather than FACE

so E .... HTH

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parallel structure [#permalink] New post 17 Mar 2011, 03:05
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early
retirement rather than face
the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice
insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
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Re: parallel structure [#permalink] New post 17 Mar 2011, 03:11
Sc is checking ||ism
Have>had
Elected to retire||elected to face
Retire||face
E remains

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Re: parallel structure [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2011, 00:27
I too chose E :)
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Re: rather than.....instead of [#permalink] New post 10 May 2011, 22:59
Hi,

Can anyone tell me why E is better than D?

Thank you.
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Re: parallel structure [#permalink] New post 01 Sep 2011, 06:28
'recent study' suggests that we should use 'have'.
rather than is used for presence.
between D & E. E is parallel.
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink] New post 08 Sep 2011, 10:11
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Quote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
b. had elected early retirement instead of facing
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face



Answer: E
Subject-verb agreement - 'doctors have' not 'doctors had'. 'had elected' is past perfect tense used only to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place. --> eliminate A and B
Parallelism - 'elected to retire...rather than face...' --> eliminate C and D

------

*Note:
1. Present Perfect Tense
- used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing.
- uses has or have + the past participle; the present perfect continuous tense uses has or have + been (the past participle of BE) + the - ing form of the main verb.
- e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

2. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- used to express continuous, ongoing actions which have already been completed at the time of speaking or writing.
- e.g. The bus has been waiting for one hour.

3. The Past Perfect tense

- used to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. She had heard the news before I saw her.
I had finished my work by the time the clock struck twelve.

4. Past-perfect continuous tense

- used to refer to a continuous, ongoing action in the past which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. I had been waiting for two months by the time I received the reply.
He had been thinking about his friends shortly before they called.



Type of Tense

Simple
- actions occurring at regular intervals
- general truths, or situations existing for a period of time
- non-continuous actions

Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions

Perfect
- non-continuous actions completed before a certain time

Perfect Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions completed before a certain time
Attachments

File comment: Summary of Tenses
Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png
Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png [ 50.57 KiB | Viewed 2522 times ]


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What is the rule ? [#permalink] New post 07 Oct 2011, 03:39
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

the official answer says:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
That C is incorrect because "have elected" needs to be followed by an infinitive "to retire"?
what rule is Present perfect + infinitive ???

I was choosing between C&E but since the "to" was missing I picked C. If I had known this apparent rule I would have got it right..for future questions, can anyone explain this to me?


What rule is that ? (see spoiler above)

thanks
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Re: OG SC - Doctors early retirement [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2011, 04:50
Chose D :(
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 22 Jul 2012, 08:08
redferrocene wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

The correct answer is E.


Strike 1=> Verb tense: present perfect fits (has found) so, A,B out
Strike 2=> Meaning => instead of (substitution-wrong) , rather than (preference, right) c out
Strike 3 => Parallelism => to retire rather than facing - wrong => D out
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2013, 00:40
What is the difference between C and E i.e. 'instead of' and rather than?
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2013, 01:15
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face

had is not correct

(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing

had is not correct

(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing

"have elected retiring" does not sound right to me, also there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing

there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

correct. parallelism of elected and face is also correct, hence the OA.


Please correct me if I am wrong
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2013, 01:18
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ziyavutdinov wrote:
What is the difference between C and E i.e. 'instead of' and rather than?


This might help:

1. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/instead-of-vs-rather-than-t7242.html
2. http://gmatclub.com/forum/instead-of-vs-rather-than-vs-oppose-to-104503.html
3. http://gmatclub.com/forum/instead-of-vs-rather-than-102935.html
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2013, 01:12
I have solved this question using following concepts mentioned in MGMAT SC:

1. Chapter 9 : Idioms.
It says following structures are allowed for "elect":
1. Elected early withdrawal.
or 2. Elected to withdraw ( so this one is provided in option in D and E with correct verb tense "have").

2. Chapter 11 (Parallelism: Concrete noun and action nouns extra)
Where book tells us about the acceptable type of parallelism among concrete nouns, action nouns, simple gerund noun and complex gerund noun.
Book says:
1. We can only make concrete nouns parallel with concrete nouns.
2. Action nouns parallel with - action nouns or complex gerund nouns. ( that is the case in option E. FACE and The RISING)
3. Simple gerund nouns parallel to only simple gerund nouns.

Thus option E is the best option as per SC rules.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2013, 07:17
Lets have a discussion over it:

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

A and B are out because of Had,
D does not follow parallelism, so out
Choice between C and E.

Both of them are parallel , so what exactly is wrong in C ?
Is it because of instead of and rather than?
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 17 Feb 2014, 20:08
Within past few years means something started in past and still continuing in present.
When elected can be replaced by opted or is used as in the sense of opted then use to verb to show purpose.
Students elected him as head boy. (correct)
He elected improvement. (wrong: he did not vote for the improvement he opted for it so use to verb form).
He elected to improve. (correct)
Here since correct for is to elect so to maintain || structure we need to face.
In B and C || im is correct but we need to so whole sentence is wrong.
So choice E is correct also in E
To face || :
1. the threats of lawsuits
2. The rising costs
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 26 Aug 2014, 07:43
A recent study has found that
within the past few years,
many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

1. X rather than Y=> X and Y shall be ||. A & D are out.
2.Within the past few years means from past few year which means its still continuing hence A and B out.
3. elected to Vs elected => I elected to do something -> opted to do something.
People elected president. Here doctors opted so elected to is correct usage here. Hence C is out.

E is correct.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2014, 08:48
Sorry if this is a silly question.
Can anyone explain the concept how "to retire" is parallel to "face" in the sentence.Also if you can share a link or written document which details the laws here will be wonderful.

This still does not get in my head.
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 27 Aug 2014, 19:38
arjitsri wrote:
Sorry if this is a silly question.
Can anyone explain the concept how "to retire" is parallel to "face" in the sentence.Also if you can share a link or written document which details the laws here will be wonderful.

This still does not get in my head.


My 2 cents on this.
Hope this answers ur query and doesn't add more confusion :)
As mentioned in earlier reply, rather than is a ||sm marker and hence X,Y needs to be ||.
Now, Drs have elected to do something and whats that? X rather than Y.
Since dropping the "to" doesn't introduce any ambiguity in the sentence , it OK to drop it.
have elected to
retire early
rather than
(to)face ....

Or
have elected
to retire early
rather than
to face ....
Both r fine.

Crux of the story, it's OK to drop the repeated stuff in || items as long as it doesn't introduce any ambiguity.
Quoting a response from MGMAT thread.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/par ... 12348.html
You can read more on this in eGmat or MGmat articles on ||sm.

"I have a dog that barks and that looks like a lion."
"that barks" is parallel to "that looks like a lion"

"I have a dog that barks and looks like a lion."
"barks" is parallel to "looks like a lion"


Ralph likes both THOSE WHO are popular and WHO are not.
In the above sentence these two are different, hence no good.

Also, go from right to left when you are checking for parallelism. Here the parallel marker is AND that comes to the right of the sentence. After figuring out the parallel marker then decide what things are parallel.
Ralph likes people who are popular and who are tall.
HOWEVER, this is a different trap where there is ambiguity on whether he likes two different types of people OR people who are two different things. To add clarity, we would distinguish as:

Ralph likes people who are popular and tall. (he likes people who are popular and tall)
Ralph likes people who are popular and people who are tall. (he likes people who are popular and he also likes people who are tall)
Ralph likes people who are popular and who are tall. (ambiguity here... the GMAT might allow this, but if given the preference chose a sentence with a clearer meaning)

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A recent study has found that within the past few years,   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2014, 19:38
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