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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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31 Aug 2005, 05:56
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
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31 Aug 2005, 06:02
I will go with E on this.

I know its between C and E.

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31 Aug 2005, 06:20
I have found this material when looking for instead of vs rather than:

The phrase rather than consists of an adverb and a conjunction and often means "and not," as in I decided to skip lunch rather than eat in the cafeteria again. It is grammatically similar to sooner than in that it is used with a "bare" infinitiveâ€”an infinitive minus to: I would stay here and eat flies sooner than go with them.

Rather than can also be used with nouns as a compound preposition meaning "instead of": I bought a mountain bike rather than a ten-speed. But some people object to this use, insisting that than should be used only as a conjunction. They therefore object to constructions in which rather than is followed by a gerund, as in Rather than buying a new car, I kept my old one.

In some cases, however, rather than can only be followed by a gerund and not by a bare infinitive. If the main verb of the sentence has a form that does not allow parallel treatment of the verb following rather than, you cannot use a bare infinitive, and you must use a gerund. This is often the case when the main verb is in a past tense or has a participle. Thus, you must say The results of the study, rather than ending (not end or ended) the controversy, only added to it. If the main verb was in the present tense (add), you could use the bare infinitive end.

Curiously, when the rather than construction follows the main verb, it can use other verb forms besides the bare infinitive. Thus you can say The results of the study added to the controversy rather than ended it.

The overriding concern in all of this should be to avoid faulty parallels, as in sentences like Rather than buy a new car, I have kept my old one and Rather than take a cab, she is going on foot.

Clearly, it is grammatically defensible to follow rather than with a gerund, but if you prefer to avoid the controversy, use instead of with gerunds.

Based on what the bolded paragraph says the answer I think is C.
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01 Sep 2005, 03:08
I choose E.

Huskers,
Your explanation on use of rather than vs instead is very helpful. However, the infinitive form (to be) form of the verb is more appropriate than the limited present-tense â€œisâ€
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01 Sep 2005, 03:11
I would go for E.

to retire rather than face is correct.
rather than is usually followed by an infinitive without to
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01 Sep 2005, 07:47
OA is E. We need parallel structure to retire... (to) face..

The second infinitive does not need the 'to' to be stated explicitly.
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29 Sep 2005, 08:38
Thats Odd!

C is explicitly parallel, so wondering why its not C over E which is implicitly parallel!!!!!!!
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29 Sep 2005, 09:12
As I read from some post here, GMAT unexplicably prefers " rather than" to "instead of ". So, you'd better jump to those choices with " rather than" during GMAT exam.
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29 Sep 2005, 11:54
I think elected to retire is more idiomatic than elected retiring.

So C is out. E maintains the parallelism by using bare infinitive.
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29 Sep 2005, 12:29
well this question test couple of things, one of course as many of you have pointed out || ism...so no doubt that in E it is correct.

however, what we need to understand is that this study is recent, so there is no conclusive evidence that the doctors have stopped retiring..etc..for all we know they still are , so we cannot use past perfect here...A-B are all out fo this reason..C uses the wrong idiom, the idiom is "elected to"
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29 Sep 2005, 21:30
Once again, GMAT demonstarates a disdain for instead of sentence formations. This is a reoccuring pattern we have seen time and time again. Is this just the testmakers preference or is there a hard and fast rule that I am missing???
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30 Sep 2005, 01:09
I think the key here is that elect takes a "to"

When we want to use elect with the same meaning as choose or decide, the correct form is "elect to"
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20 Jan 2006, 14:57
24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
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20 Jan 2006, 15:24
Simply E.

"Recent study".... can not use "had". A and B are out. "Elected to retire" is the correct idiom. So C is out.

Between D and E. E is ||. "have elected to retire early rather than face"

You may ask how "to retire" and "face" are ||.

I think I learnt from this forum that we can omit "to" from the entities other than first. e.g "to X, to Y and to Z" can be better written as "to X, Y and Z"
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20 Jan 2006, 21:27
ps_dahiya wrote:
Simply E.

"Recent study".... can not use "had". A and B are out. "Elected to retire" is the correct idiom. So C is out.

Between D and E. E is ||. "have elected to retire early rather than face"

You may ask how "to retire" and "face" are ||.

I think I learnt from this forum that we can omit "to" from the entities other than first. e.g "to X, to Y and to Z" can be better written as "to X, Y and Z"

I think it cannot be E because its not parallel... rather than face lawsuits and rising costs

FOr this reason i would go with C
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20 Jan 2006, 21:31
andy_gr8 wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
Simply E.

"Recent study".... can not use "had". A and B are out. "Elected to retire" is the correct idiom. So C is out.

Between D and E. E is ||. "have elected to retire early rather than face"

You may ask how "to retire" and "face" are ||.

I think I learnt from this forum that we can omit "to" from the entities other than first. e.g "to X, to Y and to Z" can be better written as "to X, Y and Z"

I think it cannot be E because its not parallel... rather than face lawsuits and rising costs

FOr this reason i would go with C

I think "has/have verb'ed to" is correct form. So, A, B & C are out.

eg: "I have decided to study" is correct & "I have decided studying" is wrong.
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21 Jan 2006, 04:39
Only (E) uses the correct S-V agreement + active voice
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21 Jan 2006, 09:43
Only one thing to add, but E should be it.

the sentence should read "have elected to retire early rather than to face...." for parallelism.
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21 Jan 2006, 14:31
The OA is E

I was hesitant between D and E. Since D uses "facing", again, with the "ing", do you only use ing when there is cause and effect?
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SC-SC1000 - diff btw whether and if - anyone ? [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2006, 10:07
21. A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; the question is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are trimmed.
(A) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are
(B) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one once their horns are
(C) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animalsâ€™ horns have been
(D) if tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses once the animalsâ€™ horns are
(E) if tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one after the animalsâ€™ horns have been
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SC-SC1000 - diff btw whether and if - anyone ?   [#permalink] 07 Feb 2006, 10:07

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