Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 23 Sep 2014, 06:57

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

A recent study has found that within the past few years,

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
1 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 22 Oct 2004
Posts: 10
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [1] , given: 0

A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2004, 09:56
1
This post received
KUDOS
6
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

57% (01:43) correct 43% (00:53) wrong based on 682 sessions
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

The correct answer is E.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
Expert Post
4 KUDOS received
Retired Moderator
avatar
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 2266
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Followers: 263

Kudos [?]: 1621 [4] , given: 249

Re: 1000 series question [#permalink] New post 25 Dec 2010, 07:26
4
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
The verb setting of the main clause (‘has found’) is in present perfect. To avoid shift of tense, one has to maintain present perfect in the subordinate clause also. hence A and B are out. Among C, D and E, C is out because of using instead of. Rather than is the right choice because rather than shows contrast, while instead of just meaning ‘in the place of’ does not effuse contrast.

In D, to retire ….. than facing is not parallel. E is the best choice. To retire, an infinitive, matches face, elliptically meaning to face
_________________

Get the best GMAT Prep Resources with GMAT Club Premium Membership

3 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 20 Jul 2011
Posts: 152
GMAT Date: 10-21-2011
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 33 [3] , given: 15

GMAT Tests User
Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink] New post 08 Sep 2011, 10:11
3
This post received
KUDOS
Quote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
b. had elected early retirement instead of facing
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face



Answer: E
Subject-verb agreement - 'doctors have' not 'doctors had'. 'had elected' is past perfect tense used only to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place. --> eliminate A and B
Parallelism - 'elected to retire...rather than face...' --> eliminate C and D

------

*Note:
1. Present Perfect Tense
- used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing.
- uses has or have + the past participle; the present perfect continuous tense uses has or have + been (the past participle of BE) + the - ing form of the main verb.
- e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

2. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- used to express continuous, ongoing actions which have already been completed at the time of speaking or writing.
- e.g. The bus has been waiting for one hour.

3. The Past Perfect tense

- used to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. She had heard the news before I saw her.
I had finished my work by the time the clock struck twelve.

4. Past-perfect continuous tense

- used to refer to a continuous, ongoing action in the past which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. I had been waiting for two months by the time I received the reply.
He had been thinking about his friends shortly before they called.



Type of Tense

Simple
- actions occurring at regular intervals
- general truths, or situations existing for a period of time
- non-continuous actions

Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions

Perfect
- non-continuous actions completed before a certain time

Perfect Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions completed before a certain time
Attachments

File comment: Summary of Tenses
Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png
Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png [ 50.57 KiB | Viewed 2442 times ]


_________________

"The best day of your life is the one on which you decide your life is your own. No apologies or excuses. No one to lean on, rely on, or blame. The gift is yours - it is an amazing journey - and you alone are responsible for the quality of it. This is the day your life really begins." - Bob Moawab

2 KUDOS received
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 30 Apr 2008
Posts: 1893
Location: Oklahoma City
Schools: Hard Knocks
Followers: 30

Kudos [?]: 435 [2] , given: 32

GMAT Tests User
Re: SC [#permalink] New post 04 Sep 2009, 18:17
2
This post received
KUDOS
No, I'm saying there is something wrong with C. If it were correct, the words ending in -ing are parallel.

There are different parts of speech: infinitives and gerunds.

When you're talking about an action and not a noun, then you need the infinitive.

Examples:

1) He prefers to go to the movies rather than to go ice skating.

2) He prefers skiing over sleding.

#2 is uses a noun form of the actions. I don't think #2 is wrong, but it would be better to say "He prefers to go skiing instead of sleding."

tejal777 wrote:
So guys just to clarify..
C has nothihg wrong with it and neither has E but since we prefer the infinitive form in the GMAT we'll go with E??
Is that what you guys are saying??

How does C have incoorect grammar jallenmorris?

_________________

------------------------------------
J Allen Morris
**I'm pretty sure I'm right, but then again, I'm just a guy with his head up his a$$.

Get the best GMAT Prep Resources with GMAT Club Premium Membership

2 KUDOS received
CEO
CEO
User avatar
Joined: 29 Aug 2007
Posts: 2501
Followers: 53

Kudos [?]: 507 [2] , given: 19

GMAT Tests User
Re: SC [#permalink] New post 04 Sep 2009, 22:42
2
This post received
KUDOS
asthanap wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

I could reach to final two: D & E. Not able to find out which one is correct and why.

Can someone please throw some light?


1. Whenever you have a choice between "instead of" and "rather than" in gmat, select "rather than". That rules out B and C.
2. A is out for wrong tense "had ....." for a recent activity...
3. D is out for not being parallel "retire ... and facing....".

So E remains...
_________________

Verbal: new-to-the-verbal-forum-please-read-this-first-77546.html
Math: new-to-the-math-forum-please-read-this-first-77764.html
Gmat: everything-you-need-to-prepare-for-the-gmat-revised-77983.html


GT

1 KUDOS received
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 30 Oct 2003
Posts: 1798
Location: NewJersey USA
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 35 [1] , given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 09 Feb 2005, 10:28
1
This post received
KUDOS
Here I am talking about usage of verbs to maintain the parallelism.

"have elected to retire" is a verb or an action
"face" is also an action or a verb.

If you use "to" before "face" then it looks like the doctors have elected to face something. It looked awkward.

In all the other sentences verb and gerunds/participles are used. Those sentences are least parallel.


Parallellism means you should use similar class of sentence fragment/elements.

Noun/Noun Phrase + Noun/Gerund/Noun Phrase/Gerund Phrase
Verb + Verb

I hope I have clarified my point.
1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 18 Apr 2005
Posts: 551
Location: Canuckland
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 7 [1] , given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 13 May 2005, 22:28
1
This post received
KUDOS
C sounds a bit better than E. I think it is because of 'within'. If it was 'recently' I think, I'd go with E. Parallel structures aren't a problem in E or C imo.
1 KUDOS received
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 07 Nov 2007
Posts: 1829
Location: New York
Followers: 27

Kudos [?]: 456 [1] , given: 5

GMAT Tests User
Re: SC [#permalink] New post 18 Mar 2009, 06:12
1
This post received
KUDOS
asthanap wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

I could reach to final two: D & E. Not able to find out which one is correct and why.

Can someone please throw some light?


E for parallelism

have elected to retire early rather than <to> face

in D.
have elected to retire early rather than facing
--> not parallel.
_________________

Your attitude determines your altitude
Smiling wins more friends than frowning

1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 01 Aug 2008
Posts: 770
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 100 [1] , given: 99

GMAT Tests User
Re: rather than.....instead of [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2009, 05:38
1
This post received
KUDOS
WhyabloodyMBA wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face


how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..?


you use 'rather than' to compare clauses and 'instead of' to compare 'nouns/noun phrases'.

But also remember you can use 'rather than' to emphasize priority over something.

in this question to maintain parallelism with 'retire' you have to have 'face' verb. so obviously you go for 'rather than'.

Hope that helps.

Last edited by ugimba on 09 Jul 2009, 05:00, edited 1 time in total.
1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 03 Jun 2009
Posts: 805
Location: New Delhi
WE 1: 5.5 yrs in IT
Followers: 63

Kudos [?]: 397 [1] , given: 56

GMAT Tests User
Re: rather than.....instead of [#permalink] New post 09 Jul 2009, 03:22
1
This post received
KUDOS
rather than shows a judgment. One choice is preferred over the other. It is better somehow.
instead of merely expresses a replacement of one thing for another.

I would rather have ice cream than apple pie because I like ice cream better.
But if there weren't very much ice cream left, and I wanted to save some for tomorrow, I might have apple pie instead of ice cream tonight.
_________________

ISB 2011-12 thread | Ask ISB Alumni @ ThinkISB
All information related to Indian candidates and B-schools | Indian B-schools accepting GMAT scores
Self evaluation for Why MBA?

1 KUDOS received
SVP
SVP
User avatar
Joined: 30 Apr 2008
Posts: 1893
Location: Oklahoma City
Schools: Hard Knocks
Followers: 30

Kudos [?]: 435 [1] , given: 32

GMAT Tests User
Re: SC [#permalink] New post 04 Sep 2009, 13:35
1
This post received
KUDOS
No, I don't agree. C uses "retiring" incorrectly. While the words with -ing are parallel, the sentence still has incorrect grammar. Remember on the GMAT that more often than not, use an infinite "to [plus verb]"

Ayrish wrote:
Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777

here is the idea

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
Bold words should be || (parallel to)

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face)
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (like a)
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||)
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing)
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising)

do you agree?

_________________

------------------------------------
J Allen Morris
**I'm pretty sure I'm right, but then again, I'm just a guy with his head up his a$$.

Get the best GMAT Prep Resources with GMAT Club Premium Membership

1 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 07 Jul 2009
Posts: 230
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 42 [1] , given: 13

GMAT Tests User
Re: SC [#permalink] New post 04 Sep 2009, 14:23
1
This post received
KUDOS
Ayrish wrote:
Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777

here is the idea

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
Bold words should be || (parallel to)

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face)
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (like a)
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||)
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing)
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising)

do you agree?

rising is not parallel to retiring and facing. Elected to .....rather than .... face is way better than elected retiring early instead of facing...
rather than is preferred over instead of
In this sentence infinitive is better than ing.
1 KUDOS received
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 18 Sep 2009
Posts: 373
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 76 [1] , given: 2

GMAT Tests User
Recent study [#permalink] New post 04 May 2010, 14:16
1
This post received
KUDOS
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
[Reveal] Spoiler:
e


I already noticed the above sc in this forum. my doubt is
are the "face the threats of lawsuits" and "the rising costs of malpractice insurance" in parallel form. please explain.
1 KUDOS received
Director
Director
avatar
Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing.
Affiliations: Chicago Booth Class of 2015
Joined: 26 Nov 2009
Posts: 995
Followers: 14

Kudos [?]: 401 [1] , given: 36

GMAT Tests User
Re: SC question from section7 q11 [#permalink] New post 07 Jun 2010, 02:33
1
This post received
KUDOS
rather than compares actions.

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

E is most parallel.

have elected to retire
have elected not to face the threats
_________________

Please press kudos if you like my post.

1 KUDOS received
Current Student
User avatar
Status: Current MBA Student
Joined: 19 Nov 2009
Posts: 129
Concentration: Finance, General Management
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 65 [1] , given: 210

OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink] New post 13 Jan 2011, 18:01
1
This post received
KUDOS
Can someone explain to me why
[Reveal] Spoiler:
(C)
is incorrect? What is the rule of thumb regarding using infinitives vs. -ing verb forms in this problem. Another tricky component to this problem is that the second "to" is implied, and not included.

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
b. had elected early retirement instead of facing
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face

OA :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
1 KUDOS received
McCombs Thread Master
avatar
Joined: 24 Sep 2012
Posts: 129
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V39
WE: Project Management (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 30 [1] , given: 22

CAT Tests
Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2013, 01:15
1
This post received
KUDOS
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face

had is not correct

(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing

had is not correct

(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing

"have elected retiring" does not sound right to me, also there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing

there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

correct. parallelism of elected and face is also correct, hence the OA.


Please correct me if I am wrong
Please Kudo me if my post helped you.

_________________

My GMAT debrief

greatness is not about possessing talent but about having the discipline to summon that talent whenever needed!!!


Please Kudos my post if it helped you!!

1 KUDOS received
McCombs Thread Master
avatar
Joined: 24 Sep 2012
Posts: 129
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V39
WE: Project Management (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 30 [1] , given: 22

CAT Tests
Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2013, 01:18
1
This post received
KUDOS
ziyavutdinov wrote:
What is the difference between C and E i.e. 'instead of' and rather than?


This might help:

1. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/instead-of-vs-rather-than-t7242.html
2. http://gmatclub.com/forum/instead-of-vs-rather-than-vs-oppose-to-104503.html
3. http://gmatclub.com/forum/instead-of-vs-rather-than-102935.html
_________________

My GMAT debrief

greatness is not about possessing talent but about having the discipline to summon that talent whenever needed!!!


Please Kudos my post if it helped you!!

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 18 Sep 2004
Posts: 157
Location: Dallas, TX
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2004, 10:19
I'd go with E... had is used to show a sequence of events
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 22 Oct 2004
Posts: 10
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 0

 [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2004, 12:25
OA is "E".
I had a tie between A and E. I chose A because the incident reported, had happened in the past. The doctors chose to retire. They are not choosing to retire. The survey shows that the doctors "chose" they are not choosing....

Could you please support your claims
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 18 Sep 2004
Posts: 157
Location: Dallas, TX
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 0

GMAT Tests User
 [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2004, 12:43
Here's an attempt at an explanation...

In the sentence given, there isn't really a sequence of events, it's a stating a recent study.

Here's an example of where had will make sense,

The doctors had retired before the lawyers sued them for malpractice.

In this sentence, had is used to indicate that an event occured before another event. First the doctors retired, then the lawyers sued them. "Had" in this sentence establishes that sequence.

Hope this helps...
  [#permalink] 25 Oct 2004, 12:43
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
1 A recent study has found that within the past few years, crackgmat12 5 29 Jan 2013, 20:36
1 A recent study has found that within the past few years, umeshpatil 3 01 Jan 2013, 02:46
A recent study has found that within the past few years, alimad 6 13 Jun 2007, 06:36
A recent study has found that within the past few years, LM 4 04 Apr 2007, 17:33
A recent study has found that within the past few years, selene 15 14 Jun 2006, 14:44
Display posts from previous: Sort by

A recent study has found that within the past few years,

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Go to page    1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10    Next  [ 181 posts ] 



GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.