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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2004, 10:56
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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25 Dec 2010, 08:26
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The verb setting of the main clause (‘has found’) is in present perfect. To avoid shift of tense, one has to maintain present perfect in the subordinate clause also. hence A and B are out. Among C, D and E, C is out because of using instead of. Rather than is the right choice because rather than shows contrast, while instead of just meaning ‘in the place of’ does not effuse contrast.

In D, to retire ….. than facing is not parallel. E is the best choice. To retire, an infinitive, matches face, elliptically meaning to face
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2011, 11:11
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Quote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face

Subject-verb agreement - 'doctors have' not 'doctors had'. 'had elected' is past perfect tense used only to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place. --> eliminate A and B
Parallelism - 'elected to retire...rather than face...' --> eliminate C and D

------

*Note:
1. Present Perfect Tense
- used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing.
- uses has or have + the past participle; the present perfect continuous tense uses has or have + been (the past participle of BE) + the - ing form of the main verb.
- e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

2. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- used to express continuous, ongoing actions which have already been completed at the time of speaking or writing.
- e.g. The bus has been waiting for one hour.

3. The Past Perfect tense

- used to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. She had heard the news before I saw her.
I had finished my work by the time the clock struck twelve.

4. Past-perfect continuous tense

- used to refer to a continuous, ongoing action in the past which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.

Type of Tense

Simple
- actions occurring at regular intervals
- general truths, or situations existing for a period of time
- non-continuous actions

Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions

Perfect
- non-continuous actions completed before a certain time

Perfect Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions completed before a certain time
Attachments

File comment: Summary of Tenses

Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png [ 50.57 KiB | Viewed 3202 times ]

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09 Feb 2005, 11:28
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Here I am talking about usage of verbs to maintain the parallelism.

"have elected to retire" is a verb or an action
"face" is also an action or a verb.

If you use "to" before "face" then it looks like the doctors have elected to face something. It looked awkward.

In all the other sentences verb and gerunds/participles are used. Those sentences are least parallel.

Parallellism means you should use similar class of sentence fragment/elements.

Noun/Noun Phrase + Noun/Gerund/Noun Phrase/Gerund Phrase
Verb + Verb

I hope I have clarified my point.
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04 Sep 2009, 19:17
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No, I'm saying there is something wrong with C. If it were correct, the words ending in -ing are parallel.

There are different parts of speech: infinitives and gerunds.

When you're talking about an action and not a noun, then you need the infinitive.

Examples:

1) He prefers to go to the movies rather than to go ice skating.

2) He prefers skiing over sleding.

#2 is uses a noun form of the actions. I don't think #2 is wrong, but it would be better to say "He prefers to go skiing instead of sleding."

tejal777 wrote:
So guys just to clarify..
C has nothihg wrong with it and neither has E but since we prefer the infinitive form in the GMAT we'll go with E??
Is that what you guys are saying??

How does C have incoorect grammar jallenmorris?

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**I'm pretty sure I'm right, but then again, I'm just a guy with his head up his a$$. GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings SVP Joined: 29 Aug 2007 Posts: 2492 Followers: 65 Kudos [?]: 669 [2] , given: 19 Re: SC [#permalink] ### Show Tags 04 Sep 2009, 23:42 2 This post received KUDOS asthanap wrote: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. (A) had elected early retirement rather than face (B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (E) have elected to retire early rather than face I could reach to final two: D & E. Not able to find out which one is correct and why. Can someone please throw some light? 1. Whenever you have a choice between "instead of" and "rather than" in gmat, select "rather than". That rules out B and C. 2. A is out for wrong tense "had ....." for a recent activity... 3. D is out for not being parallel "retire ... and facing....". So E remains... _________________ GMAT Club Legend Joined: 15 Dec 2003 Posts: 4302 Followers: 34 Kudos [?]: 339 [1] , given: 0 [#permalink] ### Show Tags 25 Oct 2004, 14:19 1 This post received KUDOS E is better because it is using present perfect tense. The passage is in the present tense so talking about an event that happened prior to another event in the present(and could be still ongoing), we use present perfect. present perfect: ie I am playing scrabble but note that I have achieved my goal --> I achieved the goal and then, presently, I am playing scrabble past perfect: ie I played scrabble but I had achieved my goal --> I played scrabble(in the past) but at some point before that, I achieved my goal. Read on about present and past perfect(and verb tenses in general): http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/tens ... tm#perfect _________________ Best Regards, Paul SVP Joined: 30 Oct 2003 Posts: 1793 Location: NewJersey USA Followers: 5 Kudos [?]: 72 [1] , given: 0 [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Feb 2005, 11:11 1 This post received KUDOS 1 This post was BOOKMARKED You cannot elect early retirement, but you can elect to retire early. Only (D) and (E) are possible choices. (E) is the best for parallellism because "elected to retire" is parallel to "face" Director Joined: 18 Apr 2005 Posts: 548 Location: Canuckland Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 30 [1] , given: 0 [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 May 2005, 23:28 1 This post received KUDOS C sounds a bit better than E. I think it is because of 'within'. If it was 'recently' I think, I'd go with E. Parallel structures aren't a problem in E or C imo. SVP Joined: 07 Nov 2007 Posts: 1820 Location: New York Followers: 30 Kudos [?]: 729 [1] , given: 5 Re: SC [#permalink] ### Show Tags 18 Mar 2009, 07:12 1 This post received KUDOS asthanap wrote: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. (A) had elected early retirement rather than face (B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (E) have elected to retire early rather than face I could reach to final two: D & E. Not able to find out which one is correct and why. Can someone please throw some light? E for parallelism have elected to retire early rather than <to> face in D. have elected to retire early rather than facing --> not parallel. _________________ Your attitude determines your altitude Smiling wins more friends than frowning Director Joined: 01 Aug 2008 Posts: 769 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 451 [1] , given: 99 Re: rather than.....instead of [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Jul 2009, 06:38 1 This post received KUDOS WhyabloodyMBA wrote: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. (A) had elected early retirement rather than face (B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (E) have elected to retire early rather than face how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..? you use 'rather than' to compare clauses and 'instead of' to compare 'nouns/noun phrases'. But also remember you can use 'rather than' to emphasize priority over something. in this question to maintain parallelism with 'retire' you have to have 'face' verb. so obviously you go for 'rather than'. Hope that helps. Last edited by ugimba on 09 Jul 2009, 06:00, edited 1 time in total. Director Joined: 03 Jun 2009 Posts: 799 Location: New Delhi WE 1: 5.5 yrs in IT Followers: 80 Kudos [?]: 648 [1] , given: 56 Re: rather than.....instead of [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Jul 2009, 04:22 1 This post received KUDOS rather than shows a judgment. One choice is preferred over the other. It is better somehow. instead of merely expresses a replacement of one thing for another. I would rather have ice cream than apple pie because I like ice cream better. But if there weren't very much ice cream left, and I wanted to save some for tomorrow, I might have apple pie instead of ice cream tonight. _________________ SVP Joined: 30 Apr 2008 Posts: 1888 Location: Oklahoma City Schools: Hard Knocks Followers: 39 Kudos [?]: 530 [1] , given: 32 Re: SC [#permalink] ### Show Tags 04 Sep 2009, 14:35 1 This post received KUDOS No, I don't agree. C uses "retiring" incorrectly. While the words with -ing are parallel, the sentence still has incorrect grammar. Remember on the GMAT that more often than not, use an infinite "to [plus verb]" Ayrish wrote: Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777 here is the idea A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. Bold words should be || (parallel to) (A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face) (B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (like a) (C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||) (D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing) (E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising) do you agree? _________________ ------------------------------------ J Allen Morris **I'm pretty sure I'm right, but then again, I'm just a guy with his head up his a$$.

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04 Sep 2009, 15:23
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Ayrish wrote:
Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777

here is the idea

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
Bold words should be || (parallel to)

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face)
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||)
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing)
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising)

do you agree?

rising is not parallel to retiring and facing. Elected to .....rather than .... face is way better than elected retiring early instead of facing...
rather than is preferred over instead of
In this sentence infinitive is better than ing.
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04 May 2010, 15:16
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
[Reveal] Spoiler:
e

I already noticed the above sc in this forum. my doubt is
are the "face the threats of lawsuits" and "the rising costs of malpractice insurance" in parallel form. please explain.
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Re: SC question from section7 q11 [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2010, 03:33
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rather than compares actions.

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

E is most parallel.

have elected to retire
have elected not to face the threats
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OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2011, 19:01
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Can someone explain to me why
[Reveal] Spoiler:
(C)
is incorrect? What is the rule of thumb regarding using infinitives vs. -ing verb forms in this problem. Another tricky component to this problem is that the second "to" is implied, and not included.

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face

OA :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2013, 02:15
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face

(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing

"have elected retiring" does not sound right to me, also there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing

there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

correct. parallelism of elected and face is also correct, hence the OA.

Please correct me if I am wrong
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2013, 02:18
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ziyavutdinov wrote:
What is the difference between C and E i.e. 'instead of' and rather than?

This might help:

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25 Oct 2004, 11:19
I'd go with E... had is used to show a sequence of events

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