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# A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2012, 20:30
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong . Can anybody explain the correct answer).

Actually, there is no ambiguity in the question.

What was the study? 60 students were put on nutritious diet. 60 were not.
What was the result? The 60 students who were put on nutritious diet did not have higher grades than other 60.
What did they conclude? Special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades.

Now, we need to evaluate the accuracy of the study. What will help us figure out whether what we concluded from the study is valid or not?
Because 60 students with diet plans did not get better grades, can we say nutrition does not have any positive affect on grades? Perhaps not. What if nutrition can improve low grades (by giving students more energy and making them more active) and bring them up to average (but not improve average to take them to above average since they need to work hard too)? If this were true, the conclusion of the study would not be valid. Special nutritional planning WOULD have a positive affect on students’ grades. "If grades were low, they could become better by nutritional planning"
Hence option (D) is useful in determining the accuracy of the study.

As for other options, focus on what was concluded from the study. Are they relevant to the conclusion "Special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades."?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.

(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
Students saying that they did not alter their diet doesn't mean anything. It is true that they said it but did they actually maintain their study habit or not, we don't know. So not relevant. No need to think further.

(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
Nothing to do with fitness regime and grades. Only food and grades connection is our concern.

(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.
Again, not relevant.
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Intern Joined: 13 Jul 2012 Posts: 1 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0 Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Aug 2012, 18:15 gixxer1000 wrote: I get answer E. Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above? We are only concerned about the accuracy of the study. The study looked at 60 students. If these 60 students were not a random group then the study would not be accurate. For example half the students could be seniors who tend to get steady grades because they have made it to their senior year and the other half could be freshmen whose grades are all over the place. v) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college. This is the only answer that adds to the validity of the study sample. I agree. E is my answer as well. Senior Manager Joined: 14 Jul 2013 Posts: 295 Location: India Concentration: Marketing, Strategy GMAT 1: 690 Q49 V34 GMAT 2: 670 Q49 V33 GPA: 3.6 WE: Brand Management (Retail) Followers: 13 Kudos [?]: 187 [0], given: 130 Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink] ### Show Tags 05 Aug 2013, 10:02 Two things are relevant to measure the accuracy of the study. Whatever the accuracy might be doesn't matter. 1 Diet plan change. 2. Improvement/no improvement/downgrade(scores, performance) D is the closest thing which talks about these two things. D is the correct answer Posted from my mobile device _________________ Cheers Farhan My Blog - Student for Life ( Oxford MBA) Intern Joined: 12 May 2012 Posts: 1 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 47 Re: CR: Nutrition Study [#permalink] ### Show Tags 19 Aug 2013, 12:15 I agree with the explanation given for D. And why B is incorrect - Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits - -- Study Habits does not guarantee improvement in the grades. May be taking nutritional diet improves the efficiency of student brain that helps him to get good grades with the same study habits. Hope it helps. Sunny goalsnr wrote: bhatiasanjay01 wrote: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan. Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above? i) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets. ii)Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits. iii)Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits. iv) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. v) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college. I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong . Can anybody explain the correct answer). Conclusion: special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Evidence:Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan. The evidence here is weak becuase it provides no details about the student's grade before and after the intake of special diet.Only D brings in information to say students with previously lower grades performed well after they started takin in special diet and refute the conclusion that special diet donot affect student's growth. This answer choice can used to measure the accuracy of this conclusion made in the argument. D Current Student Joined: 02 Apr 2013 Posts: 65 Concentration: General Management, Technology GMAT 1: Q V GPA: 3 WE: Science (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech) Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 26 Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink] ### Show Tags 19 Aug 2013, 22:12 bhatiasanjay01 wrote: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan. Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above? (A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets. (B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits. (C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits. (D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. (E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college. I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong . Can anybody explain the correct answer). I was torn between B and D on this one. I think both prove the accuracy of the test in their own way. B seems like the better answer because the study resulted in no change after diet change. B claims that regardless of diet, study habits don't change. Thus, that's why the nutrition study is accurate, because people don't change their study habits due to diet so therefore, people who were given better meals did not perform better than those who did not. D on the other hand seems to suggest the test is flawed. If the diet trick worked on younger kids, it should have worked on other people? Thus, the study's results must be inaccurate? That's how I see those two answers. I ended up choosing B but that was wrong. Manager Joined: 09 Jun 2013 Posts: 54 GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V33 GMAT 2: 690 Q49 V34 GPA: 3.86 WE: Analyst (Advertising and PR) Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 53 [0], given: 3 Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink] ### Show Tags 20 Aug 2013, 00:06 Hey animanga008, I hope I can help you clarify your doubt regrading this question. This is the evaluate question. Solving this type of question can be challenging. However, we have the powerful technique called the variance test to determine the correct answer. So let's try the variance test on both answer (B) and (D). (B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits. Now apply the variance test. Honor students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study. Does this strengthen the argument that special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades? We don't know because honor students are not the representatives of students as a whole. Let's negate the answer choice. Honor students, after altering their diets, maintained that they DID change their study. Does this weaken the argument? Again, we don't know for the same reason stated above. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect. (D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically. If this is the case, this would weaken the argument by showing that special nutritional planning DOES positively affect students’ grades. If we negate the answer choice, high school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades DID NOT improved dramatically. If this is the case, it would strengthen the argument by showing that special nutritional planning DOES NOT positively affect students’ grades. So, the variance test works for this answer choice and it is the correct answer. I admit that this question is a bit weird; the question would be structured better if choice (D) states,"College students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically." Anyway, choice (D) is the best answer here because it covers more representative of students as a whole. _________________ Don't be afraid to fail, but be afraid not to try Intern Joined: 16 Aug 2013 Posts: 8 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 7 Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink] ### Show Tags 20 Aug 2013, 06:25 Option D is correct, since if the students who previously had poor grades improved their score after the planned nutritional diet, then the diet is supposed to have worked very much as the predicted result. Manager Joined: 23 Aug 2013 Posts: 80 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 6 [0], given: 5 Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink] ### Show Tags 04 Jul 2014, 22:04 Wouldn't the fact that Honors' students did not change their study habits remove any bias that might occur? For example if you took the diet and studied well, then the results could have been due to study habits rather than diet. So we need to know this. _________________ Kudos would be appreciated -:) ! http://www.EnglishForEveryone.in http://www.facebook.com/KnowYourEnglish GMAT Prep : Critical Reasoning Decoded Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 7125 Location: Pune, India Followers: 2139 Kudos [?]: 13696 [0], given: 222 Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink] ### Show Tags 06 Jul 2014, 21:15 HarishLearner wrote: Wouldn't the fact that Honors' students did not change their study habits remove any bias that might occur? For example if you took the diet and studied well, then the results could have been due to study habits rather than diet. So we need to know this. We need to find the option that is MOST helpful in determining the accuracy of the study. The study says "special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades" (D) says "High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically." This is directly against the result of the study. It implies that the study is not accurate. Option (B) talks about honors students. We do not know how many students in the study were honors students. So we don't know how relevant this information is to our study. Hence answer is (D) only. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 07:16
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This question appeared in Princeton review Practise Test.
The answer choice D makes the most sense here and that is what I selected in my mock test where I first saw this question.

But frankly speaking I think the question is designed very imperfectly. Here are my reasons :

1. The question stem asks "Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?"... This seems to be an Evaluate question. And the answer choices are straight premises. how does that make sense...? The answer choices must be in questioning format as seen in evaluate type of question. A kind of question stem like this should not have premises directly as an answer.
Or ... If the question stem read, "Which of the following, if true, is most useful in questioning the accuracy of the study described above?" then the question and answers choices make sense together.

I have done all GMAT official CR questions from OGs and Verbal Review. Never came across a question stem like this which doesn't make sense with answers....

2. This CR question is rated at number 5 difficulty level out of 10 in Princeton review test. Difficulty level 5 is of 500 score level . Oh come on..! If this is really such an easy question why would so many guys in gmatclub post wrong answers. And after explanation still dont understand why D is the correct answer...?

So frankly speaking, I dont think this question has any GMAT level clarity in it... The question is not framed in a good way. So there is no need to scratch your heads on a question like this...

Any one agrees with me..!

Last edited by vinraj on 21 Jul 2014, 23:34, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 06:11
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I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 11:21
Conclusion: Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Prephrase: To attack the conclusion I would assume that the students whom were given the balanced diet would have lower grades if they were not provided that diet.

B: Irrelevant: study habits
C: Irrelevant: fitness/exercise habits
E: How does this information help to evaluate whether the study was accurate?

D matches with the prephrase. So it is my answer.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 12:07
I have some doubts regarding the explanation.... firstly answer choice D talks about high school students.... we can't compare the grades changes of a high school student and a college student.... secondly the answer choice also uses the term "after they altered diets"... are we supposed to assume altering the diet specifically means moving to a balanced diet... and lastly we need to determine the accuracy of the study... even if high school students responded positively to the study... college students did not... thus we have one positive result and one negative.... how can we say anything about the study's accuracy with only two results and that too opposite...
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2014, 22:38
dennis14 wrote:
I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect.

(E) only tells you that they are 1st or 2nd year students, not 3rd or 4th year. How does that affect your study? Half of them are getting balanced diet and half are not. Even if they were 3rd and 4th year students, why would we challenge the results of the study?
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2014, 08:20
I picked E as my answer.

I think high school students are different from college students in that each section of the students study differently. High school students do more in memorizing subjects while college students do have their majors/disciplines. Eating eggs may help improve your memory capability but that may not affect your innovation level when innovation is key to those in colleges.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2015, 13:21
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

My take:
If I had to chose, maybe I would answer D and move on. As the ONLY study is contrary to predicted results, maybe another study with +ve or -ve results may be useful to decide the ACCURACY of the given study.

D provides another example with opposite results, so, D is definitely useful. But, no other choices are actually similar to the given study. Is this a method of reasoning Q?

Can somebody tell me the source??

Thanks.
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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 22:33
why god why .. why evaluate the argument questions are so difficult , its a 95 % difficulty level question , i thought D is too obvious , the correct answer cannot be this straight , so I marked E. If anyone can please tell me why E is incorrect .
It says (E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.
Applying variance test ,they were in first year of college , all students are taken from same batch similary all students who volunteered were in 2nd year , it again implies all same batch students taken so there is no such thing as improper comparison, students taken from same batch means its an apple to apple comparison and our conclusion holds correct.

Please advise how this is incorrect . Am I thinking too much ? . I am really bad at evaluate questions , what is the frequency of these questions on GMAT .

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 22:49
dennis14 wrote:
I dont know why everybody is discussing B and D.

I think we should discuss D and E here.

I think D is useful to determine accuracy however E as well is needed to udnerstand that the sample of students are similar. They are not highest rankers in the class. Top of the top.

So im torn between D and E.

Or the question is incorrect.

Seriously you just put my thoughts into words. I was confused between D and E. For D i cant begin to understand how high school students can be compared with volunteers , probably all volunteer are kindergarden student or probably they are all PHD candidates who knows ? how we know we are comparing apple to apple. Although E also doest seem to a justified solid answer but still were better than rest.
I seriously have doubt regarding the correctness of this question , I think I should just focus on OG questions ,there is huge diff between OG questions and questions from others resources.

Ans choice for OG questions as difficult as they may be but are really undisputable.

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Re: A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 07:11
bhatiasanjay01 wrote:
A recent study of college students shows that, contrary to predicted results, special nutritional planning does not positively affect students’ grades. Sixty students, half of whom were given a nutritionally balanced diet, had grades no higher than did those students who were not placed on the diet plan.

Which of the following, if true, is most useful in determining the accuracy of the study described above?

(A) Performance of business executives was shown to improve drastically after major alterations were made in their diets.
(B) Honors students, after altering their diets, maintained that they did not change their study habits.
(C) Students who participated in various fitness regimens found that their grades improved appreciably after they altered their exercise habits.
(D) High school students who previously had low grades found that after they altered their diets, their grades improved dramatically.
(E) All of the college students who volunteered for the study were either in their first or second year of college.

I marked the answer at ii), because if no changes were made to the study habits then we can conclude that there was no effect of study habits on the study, hence effect of diet can be correctly determined (Whether it had some effect or not). But this answer is wrong . Can anybody explain the correct answer).

For people who are countering E, let me give a counter example

Group A : Pre kindergarten students (avg. grades of class : 9/10)
Group B : phD Students (avg. grade of class : 5/10)

So you are saying pre kindergarten kids are more knowledgeable than phD students?

We need to clarify that the grades were from similar tests.

You can't run a mercedes on a dirt mpuntain road and an Ikea on a well built road and claim that since their oil consumption was similar mercedes in not more efficient than Ikea
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