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A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County

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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2013, 18:53
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ritula wrote:
A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.


Responding to a pm:

First let's figure out the conclusion in short: If drivers are in an accident, they can reduce risk of severe injury by wearing seat belts.

Notice that the conclusion focuses on drivers who are in an accident, not on other drivers. The point is that if one is in an accident, seat belt can reduce risk of severe injuries. So to prove it, we need data on all drivers who were in an accident.
When people are in an accident, they either suffer mild injuries or severe injuries (which could lead to death).

So if we know that of all who suffered severe injuries, only 20% were wearing seat belts, it doesn't help us conclude that wearing seat belts reduces risk of severe injuries. We need to know that of all who suffered mild injuries, how many were wearing seat belts. Say, of those who suffered mild injuries, only 10% were wearing seat belts, can we still say that seat belts reduce risk of severe injuries? No. Of those who suffered mild injuries, if 60% were wearing seat belts, it strengthens our conclusion.

Taking numbers, say 100 drivers were in an accident.
50 suffered mild injuries - Say, 30 were wearing seat belts
50 suffered severe injuries - Only 10 were wearing seat belts
We need this data to prove our conclusion - if one wears the seat belt, it reduces the risk of severe injuries.
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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2013, 15:52
ritula wrote:
A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.


OK, let's make this one rain.

Conclusion: By wearing seat belts,drivers and front-seat passengers can reduce their risk of being severely injured
Premise: A survey of all auto accident victims found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents

So what do we have here? The survey stated that 80% of the injured were not wearing seat belts, so that means that we need to show that there was some percentage that were in fact wearing seat belts.

OK let's see what we've got here

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.I like this one. This is very similar to what I was looking for.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car>> Always wear? Well, we don't really need this information we need to know about the ones being injured. So out you go
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured ---> Unessessary distinction here. Cleraly out
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents---> More than half were not wearing seatbelts, Could be. I'll leave it in.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.[/quote]>> Irrelevant. Out

Between A and D now.
A says that of all the the D and P >20% were wearing seatbelts
D says that of all the D and P >50% were NOT wearing setabelts.

Premise says that 80% of the injured.
I'm going with A on this one, it fits the argument better

Hence(A)

Hope it helps
Cheers!
J :)
Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2013, 15:52
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