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# A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County

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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2013, 18:53
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ritula wrote:
A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.

Responding to a pm:

First let's figure out the conclusion in short: If drivers are in an accident, they can reduce risk of severe injury by wearing seat belts.

Notice that the conclusion focuses on drivers who are in an accident, not on other drivers. The point is that if one is in an accident, seat belt can reduce risk of severe injuries. So to prove it, we need data on all drivers who were in an accident.
When people are in an accident, they either suffer mild injuries or severe injuries (which could lead to death).

So if we know that of all who suffered severe injuries, only 20% were wearing seat belts, it doesn't help us conclude that wearing seat belts reduces risk of severe injuries. We need to know that of all who suffered mild injuries, how many were wearing seat belts. Say, of those who suffered mild injuries, only 10% were wearing seat belts, can we still say that seat belts reduce risk of severe injuries? No. Of those who suffered mild injuries, if 60% were wearing seat belts, it strengthens our conclusion.

Taking numbers, say 100 drivers were in an accident.
50 suffered mild injuries - Say, 30 were wearing seat belts
50 suffered severe injuries - Only 10 were wearing seat belts
We need this data to prove our conclusion - if one wears the seat belt, it reduces the risk of severe injuries.
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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 15:52
ritula wrote:
A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.

OK, let's make this one rain.

Conclusion: By wearing seat belts,drivers and front-seat passengers can reduce their risk of being severely injured
Premise: A survey of all auto accident victims found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents

So what do we have here? The survey stated that 80% of the injured were not wearing seat belts, so that means that we need to show that there was some percentage that were in fact wearing seat belts.

OK let's see what we've got here

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.I like this one. This is very similar to what I was looking for.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car>> Always wear? Well, we don't really need this information we need to know about the ones being injured. So out you go
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured ---> Unessessary distinction here. Cleraly out
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents---> More than half were not wearing seatbelts, Could be. I'll leave it in.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.[/quote]>> Irrelevant. Out

Between A and D now.
A says that of all the the D and P >20% were wearing seatbelts
D says that of all the D and P >50% were NOT wearing setabelts.

Premise says that 80% of the injured.
I'm going with A on this one, it fits the argument better

Hence(A)

Hope it helps
Cheers!
J
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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2014, 09:41
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2015, 02:30
Isn't this more like a quants question? Or is it usual for the verbal section to include arithmetic and percentage calculations?

Anyway what is the correct answer and explanation?
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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2015, 22:58
ritula wrote:
A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.
(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.

The scope of the argument is
1) "ALL" auto accidents. It is not restricted to a particular type of vehicle, e.g. a truck or a car or a motorcycle.
2) "Severely injured drivers and front seat passengers" only. Nothing is mentioned about the rear seat drivers.

Based on the given fact about the seat belt status of a given percentage of severely injured drivers and front seat passengers, to conclude that wearing seat belts would reduce severity of accidents, the argument must assume that if there is a scenario where wearing seat belts considerably reduces severe accidents, the same can be emulated in all scenarios with the same result.

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
This option is completely within the scope of the argument. More than 20% could mean 80% or could mean 21%.
Let us say 80% were wearing seat belts and 20% did not. That means a total of 25% accidents were severe of which 80%(20% of the total accidents) were found to not wear the seat belts. Hence going by the fact that the remaining 75% accidents which were not severe AND the drivers and front seat passengers werewearing the seat belts, it is a valid assumption that wearing seat belts does reduce severity of accidents.
Let us say 21% were wearing the seat belts and 79% did not. Doing a similar calculation, it is clear that 98.75% accidents were severe, thus indicating that wearing seat belts does not necessarily mean reduced severity.

The above analysis of (Option A) assumes that all accidents involving no seat belts were severe. Without this assumption, the number of possible scenarios increases, but eventually in at least one scenario, the fact that more than 20% were wearing seat belts at the time of the accident does not help strengthen the conclusion. Hence in my opinion,
this is wrong option.

(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.
The word "considerably" removes the ambiguity of meaning of more than 20% to be 80% or 21%. Although we do not know exactly what is this considerable figure, but we can rest assured that it is quite sizable.
But this option is restricted to cars. So should we therefore remove it from our consideration using POE? I think NO.
Reason being, we have established that the author is trying to emulate the effectiveness of one scenario across all possible scenarios.
Let us give some numbers now. Let us say this considerable number is 50%. Hence, going by the assumption in the analysis for option A, the remaining 50% of drivers and front-seat passengers who did not wear the seat belts makes the total of severe accidents, 62.5% of all accidents. This means, 38.5% accidents were not severe AND the drivers and front seat passengers were wearing the seat belts.
Although all these figures are restricted to car accidents,
it is a good candidate for forming the conclusion that if the scenario of the 38.5% accidents is emulated, the severity would reduce.

(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.
The seat belt status of the rear-seat passengers is not known. This option does not indicate in any way as to why the author would conclude wearing seat belts as an option to reduce severity of accidents. Out of Scope

(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.
Going by the assumption used to analyze options A and B, this option indicates that very less percentage of drivers and front-seat passengers were seat belts, thus not providing strong grounds to make the conclusion. This weakens the argument.

(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.
Clearly Out of Scope
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Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 12:27
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Re: A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County   [#permalink] 28 Jul 2016, 12:27

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