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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked

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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2011, 22:35
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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

b) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.

c) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.

d) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.

e) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2011, 00:20
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a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

This answer says that depression does not make the teenagers smoke. Defend the reverse cause-effect relationship. So, this is the correct answer.

Do you have any question? About your choice or confusion? Let's me know

Hope that helps.
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2011, 07:17
+1 for A....as per above explanation
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2011, 10:38
+1 A
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2011, 11:57
+1 A !
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2011, 01:37
If X(smoking) then Y(depression)
If Y(depression) then may or may not X(smoking) => it means depression may or many not lead to smoking

By the way, only A is close to an educational guess!

Am I right?
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2011, 08:35
IMO A
cause-effect relationship
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 26 Dec 2011, 05:57
one more cause - effect question
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2012, 12:53
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eybrj2 wrote:
A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? .



a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed. eliminate the reversal of cause effect ( smoking leads to depression ). Correct

b) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers. study talks abt participants who never smoked before the study. irelevent

c) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants. irelelvent to the conclusion

d) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study. weaken as it shows that data is not correct

e) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers argument talks abt smoking. irrelevent. if it could do nything then it would weaken because it opens a new cause(alcohol) for depression (effect)
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink] New post 04 Mar 2012, 19:13
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Cause = smoking
Effect = Depression

To strengthen we will show that reverse is not true ---Depression does not lead to smoking

A
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink] New post 17 Mar 2014, 06:09
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked   [#permalink] 17 Mar 2014, 06:09
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