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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked

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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2011, 23:35
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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

b) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.

c) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.

d) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.

e) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2011, 01:20
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a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

This answer says that depression does not make the teenagers smoke. Defend the reverse cause-effect relationship. So, this is the correct answer.

Do you have any question? About your choice or confusion? Let's me know

Hope that helps.
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2011, 08:17
+1 for A....as per above explanation
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2011, 11:38
+1 A
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2011, 12:57
+1 A !
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2011, 02:37
If X(smoking) then Y(depression)
If Y(depression) then may or may not X(smoking) => it means depression may or many not lead to smoking

By the way, only A is close to an educational guess!

Am I right?
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2011, 09:35
IMO A
cause-effect relationship
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2011, 06:57
one more cause - effect question
A
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2012, 13:53
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eybrj2 wrote:
A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? .

a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed. eliminate the reversal of cause effect ( smoking leads to depression ). Correct

b) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers. study talks abt participants who never smoked before the study. irelevent

c) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants. irelelvent to the conclusion

d) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study. weaken as it shows that data is not correct

e) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers argument talks abt smoking. irrelevent. if it could do nything then it would weaken because it opens a new cause(alcohol) for depression (effect)
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Re: cr 59 A study followed a group of teenagers [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 20:13
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Cause = smoking
Effect = Depression

To strengthen we will show that reverse is not true ---Depression does not lead to smoking

A
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2014, 07:09
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2015, 15:38
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2015, 04:27
Cause-Effect relationship

Assumption: depression does not make teenagers to start smoking.

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 02:47
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 03:33
smoking causes depression

to strengthen above..show that depression does not cause smoking.This is exactly what choice A does.

A
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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2016, 10:28
eybrj2 wrote:
A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.
b) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.
This tends to weaken the argument. It leaves open, for instance, the possibility that the incidence of depression was only higher among heavy smokers than among non-smokers, but perhaps similar or even lower among occasional smokers than among non-smokers.
c) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.
Totally irrelevant.
d) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.
This is almost a repetition of the evidence or empirical data provided in the argument that does not provide additional support to the argument.
e) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.
This tends to weaken the argument, as the use of alcohol, whether it be on its own or when combined with tobacco, could be an alternative explanation of the higher incidence of depression among a certain group of people.
A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked   [#permalink] 26 Aug 2016, 10:28
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