A study made by a psychologist shows that spending too much time in front of a computer causes insomnia. Two groups of adults took part in this study. During the study the first group spent 3 hours or less per day working on a computer; the second group spent 6 hours or more working on a computer. A greater proportion of the second group had trouble falling asleep during the period of the study than members from the first group.
Which of the following, if true of the adults in the study, most challenges the psychologist’s conclusion?
a) Some adults who spent more than 6 hours per day working on a computer had fewer problems falling asleep than others in the same group.
b) Some adults who spent 3 hours per day working on a computer did not have problems falling asleep.
c) Some adults voluntarily stopped spending too much time in front of a computer after the study.
d) Some adults spent time working on the computer without any breaks, while others took frequent breaks.
e) Many of the adults in the second group had problems falling asleep before the study began.