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A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of

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A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 03 Jan 2013, 19:13
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The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 03 Jan 2013, 19:24
Expert's post
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


The answer lies in the last statement of the stimulus.
Quote:
the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier,
.
To weaken the conclusion, if we are able to produce any negative effect which helps in the deterioration of the health of the mice, then we can find the required answer.
Only a provides that there is some negative effect of probiotic microbes in yogurt.
Hence straight A.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2013, 02:34
I marked (B)
Can anyone explain why the correct answer is not B ?

"In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits"

This option weakens the chance that the mice became leaner and healthier because of the yogart, but may be for something else.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 04 Jan 2013, 03:09
Practicegmat wrote:
I marked (B)
Can anyone explain why the correct answer is not B ?

"In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits"

This option weakens the chance that the mice became leaner and healthier because of the yogart, but may be for something else.


Dear Practicegmat,

We do not know anything about the other study. It might have been flawed. So without knowing anything more than its conclusion , we cannot use it to weaken the conclusion of this study.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2013, 19:59
Marcab wrote:
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


The answer lies in the last statement of the stimulus.
Quote:
the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier,
.
To weaken the conclusion, if we are able to produce any negative effect which helps in the deterioration of the health of the mice, then we can find the required answer.
Only a provides that there is some negative effect of probiotic microbes in yogurt.
Hence straight A.


Hai,

Could you clarify my doubt??

''In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice.''

From the previous quote, I understood that the ''control mice'' are the ones that were not fed with yogurt. As stated in option A, How yogurt had a negative effect on them, ?? Pl clarify.

Thanks.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2013, 20:14
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friend29 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


The answer lies in the last statement of the stimulus.
Quote:
the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier,
.
To weaken the conclusion, if we are able to produce any negative effect which helps in the deterioration of the health of the mice, then we can find the required answer.
Only a provides that there is some negative effect of probiotic microbes in yogurt.
Hence straight A.


Hai,

Could you clarify my doubt??

''In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice.''

From the previous quote, I understood that the ''control mice'' are the ones that were not fed with yogurt. As stated in option A, How yogurt had a negative effect on them, ?? Pl clarify.

Thanks.


Hi,

The negative effect was not in the yogurt but in the meal provided to the control mice
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 14 May 2013, 06:09
Marcab wrote:
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


The answer lies in the last statement of the stimulus.
Quote:
the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier,
.
To weaken the conclusion, if we are able to produce any negative effect which helps in the deterioration of the health of the mice, then we can find the required answer.
Only a provides that there is some negative effect of probiotic microbes in yogurt.
Hence straight A.



in the stimulus it is stated that "yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice" so it is clear that control group didn't eat yogurt. so it is completely irrelevant if they die as stated in A. The answer is B.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 14 May 2013, 06:38
Expert's post
khosru wrote:
Marcab wrote:
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


The answer lies in the last statement of the stimulus.
Quote:
the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier,
.
To weaken the conclusion, if we are able to produce any negative effect which helps in the deterioration of the health of the mice, then we can find the required answer.
Only a provides that there is some negative effect of probiotic microbes in yogurt.
Hence straight A.



in the stimulus it is stated that "yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice" so it is clear that control group didn't eat yogurt. so it is completely irrelevant if they die as stated in A. The answer is B.


I would like to quote the last line, "the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier".
What I mean is that what probiotic microbes in other diets do, I dont care. What I am concerned with is that if probiotic microbes in yogurt are gud or bad. Since B does nothing, so I shall kick B out of contention.

Please let me know if I am unable to clarify myself.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 16 May 2013, 07:26
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


Hi,

Can you clarify for me?

Researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo. In other words, probiotic microbes are the cause of leaner and healthier animals, correct? Statement (B) proves that probiotic microbes do not cause any health benefits. Since it is states "if this is true," it seems like (B) weakens the conclusion of that probiotic microbes lead health benefits. In another study in (B), however, could not be reliable, but if we start doubting this, we have to doubt so many other things. For example, the terms "many" and "soon" in statement (A) are so vague that since they are not compared to other factors, we are not sure how many exactly and how soon they died.

Statement (A) tells us about the control mice, which are not our interest. Imagine you tell a person that yogurt-eating mice are healthier, and that person argues "but, mice not eating yogurt die very quickly." This sounds very illogical to me. Conclusion is, again, probiotic microbes in yogurt lead leaner and healthier mice. But (A) tells us about how unhealthy the mice which do not eat yogurt.

(C) out of scope
(D) this will strengthen the conclusion
(E) kind of out of scope, but it might strengthen the conclusion

Therefore, I think the answer needs to be (B). Please do feel free to correct me if I don't make sense.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 16 May 2013, 10:43
(A) it is for me. However this question seems like a poorly conceived one. What is the source of the question ? I mean it is from Scientific American, but who made the question up ?
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 17 May 2013, 08:06
Poor question. It cannot be A as it nowhere mentions that the "control group" mice ate yogurt in the first place. So, when they don't eat yogurt, how can consumption of yogurt and their deaths be linked?
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2013, 02:30
In the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment group(s).[1] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.

This is the standard definition of control group. How can A possibly be the answer?
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 13 Nov 2013, 04:57
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SravnaTestPrep wrote:
Practicegmat wrote:
I marked (B)
Can anyone explain why the correct answer is not B ?

"In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits"

This option weakens the chance that the mice became leaner and healthier because of the yogart, but may be for something else.


Dear Practicegmat,

We do not know anything about the other study. It might have been flawed. So without knowing anything more than its conclusion , we cannot use it to weaken the conclusion of this study.


A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment - conclusion is about the other group, hence irrelevant
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits - weakens conclusion if true
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes - irrelevant, doesn't discuss conclusion
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt - time frames are irrelevant
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts - female mice aren't compared to male mice, irrelevant

Hence we have only one answer that actually weakens the conclusion.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 25 May 2014, 09:39
control mice is the group that took normal food, not vanilla, so A cant be correct
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 11 Jun 2014, 09:00
cssmarimo wrote:
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
The following question is based on an article in Scientific American:

A team of researchers from the Massa­chusetts Institute of Technology studied the effects of yogurt on mating. The researchers took a group of 40 male mice and 40 female mice and either fed the animals a high-fat, low-fiber, low-nutrient diet meant to mimic junk food or fed them standard mouse meals. They then supple­mented half of each diet group with vanilla-flavored yogurt.In mating experiments, yogurt-eating males inseminated their partners faster and produced more offspring than control mice. Conversely, females that ate the yogurt diets gave birth to larger litters and weaned those pups with greater success. The researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo.

Which of the following if true, would most weaken the conclusion reached by the researchers?

A.Many of the mice in the control group died soon after the experiment
B.In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits
C.Yogurt is not the only food which contains a high concentration of probiotic microbes
D.Mating advantage of the yogurt eating mice reduced in a few days after they stopped taking yogurt
E.The female yogurt eating mice were healthier than their male counterparts


Hi,

Can you clarify for me?

Researchers concluded that the probiotic microbes in the yogurt help to make the animals leaner and healthier, which indirectly improves sexual machismo. In other words, probiotic microbes are the cause of leaner and healthier animals, correct? Statement (B) proves that probiotic microbes do not cause any health benefits. Since it is states "if this is true," it seems like (B) weakens the conclusion of that probiotic microbes lead health benefits. In another study in (B), however, could not be reliable, but if we start doubting this, we have to doubt so many other things. For example, the terms "many" and "soon" in statement (A) are so vague that since they are not compared to other factors, we are not sure how many exactly and how soon they died.

Statement (A) tells us about the control mice, which are not our interest. Imagine you tell a person that yogurt-eating mice are healthier, and that person argues "but, mice not eating yogurt die very quickly." This sounds very illogical to me. Conclusion is, again, probiotic microbes in yogurt lead leaner and healthier mice. But (A) tells us about how unhealthy the mice which do not eat yogurt.

(C) out of scope
(D) this will strengthen the conclusion
(E) kind of out of scope, but it might strengthen the conclusion

Therefore, I think the answer needs to be (B). Please do feel free to correct me if I don't make sense.

I think A says that it's not the yogurt that made the mice do better on the tests.
Control group is getting regular mouse food, so they should live and not die.
If most of them die shortly after the experiment, it can be due to illness, something in the food...
Makes sense?
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2014, 11:57
It’s a poorly structured sentence. It contradicts with its own options.
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2014, 04:51
SravnaTestPrep wrote:
Practicegmat wrote:
I marked (B)
Can anyone explain why the correct answer is not B ?

"In another study, probiotic microbes were not found to produce any significant health benefits"

This option weakens the chance that the mice became leaner and healthier because of the yogart, but may be for something else.


Dear Practicegmat,

We do not know anything about the other study. It might have been flawed. So without knowing anything more than its conclusion , we cannot use it to weaken the conclusion of this study.


I am not clear on the logic given above to discredit B. Isn't the conclusion given by B enough to prove the argument ? Do we need to even challenge the accuracy of the other study ?
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Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of [#permalink] New post 16 Jun 2014, 22:28
A: Opens up the possibility that the yogurt eating mice did not actually have enhanced mating capabilities, but rather that the non yogurt eating mice (control) had diminished mating capabilities

another reason B may not be the credited answer is because it fails to address the probiotic microbes --> improved physique --> improved mating aspect of the argument. There is no rule that a physically fit/lean individual has to be in good health (and, conversely, that an overweight individual has to be in poor health)....jmo

A is definitely not perfect either, but seems to directly attack the final conclusion, whereas B seems to attack the (intermediary?) conclusion as a device to get at the final conclusion
Re: A team of researchers from MIT studied the effects of   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2014, 22:28
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