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# According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of

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According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink]  17 Oct 2009, 09:01
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. According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of College an University Business Officers, more than three times as many independent institutions of higher education charge tuition and fees of under $8,000 a year than those that charge over$16,000.
A) than those that charge
B) than are charging
C) than to charge
D) as charge
E) as those charging
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by PiyushK on 11 Aug 2014, 20:59, edited 2 times in total.
OA is edited E to D
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Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink]  24 Sep 2012, 17:44
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Vinay911, not sure if you are still looking for a response on this question. But here it is anyway (I am royally late in responding to this one )
As many posters have commented, we have to establish the correct equation here. Simplistically here is the equation we are looking for:

Since your doubt pertains to choices D and E, I will only focus on those. The difference between these two choices is in terms of what is there in the blank below. Choice D has nothing in this blank and choice E has "those that". Now you may question that choice E actually states "those charging". Remember that "those charging" is equivalent of "those that charge".

For example : cow that grazes all day long = cow grazing all day long

Ok now lets look at both constructions in terms of the equation:

Per choice D - More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as ____ charge over $16000 Per choice E - More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as those that charge over$16000

Now what are the entities being compared - colleges that charge < $8000 & colleges that charge > 16000 Choice E clearly states that comparison. Whereas if you look choice D, it is missing the "COLLEGE" part of the comparison. It only states the "charge" part. I hope this helps. Let me know if you have any other questions regarding this. Regards, Payal _________________ Learn how eGMATers improved their GMAT scores by 100+ points - Click here Learn about our newly released Quant Online course here. e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1839 Followers: 1458 Kudos [?]: 4404 [3] , given: 213 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 01 Oct 2012, 07:52 3 This post received KUDOS Expert's post imhimanshu wrote: Hi Payal, Isnt the option D a classic case of ellipsis. i.e Colleges is understood by default. Please share your reasoning Thanks Himanshu egmat wrote: Per choice D - More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as ____ charge over$16000
Per choice E - More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as those that charge over $16000 Now what are the entities being compared - colleges that charge <$8000 & colleges that charge > 16000

Regards,
Payal

Himanshu and IndianExpress,

Let's assume that Choice D is fine with college actually omitted through ellipsis. Now let us bring back this word "college" and read the sentence:
More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as colleges charge over $16000. Now let us do sentence structure analysis here: 1: More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as 2: colleges charge over$16000.

Now given this sentence, what is the comparison. IMO, the comparison is no longer clear. Are we comparing the number of colleges or are we comparing the action of charging the fees. Per the intended comparison, we need to compare the colleges, more specifically the number of colleges. One side of comparison is the number of colleges with certain characteristic. The other side of comparison is the number of colleges with certain other characteristic. Now to make the above sentence correct we need to add "that" between colleges and charge as follows:

More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as colleges THAT charge over $16000. Let's take one more set of comparison sentences and see ellipsis at play: Here see how the comparison is no longer between the number of colleges. It is between the action of charging fees. West coast colleges charge 2X as much fees as east coast colleges. West coast colleges charge 2X as much fees as east coast colleges do. West coast colleges charge 2X as much fees as east coast colleges charge. I hope this helps. Regards, Payal _________________ Learn how eGMATers improved their GMAT scores by 100+ points - Click here Learn about our newly released Quant Online course here. Manager Status: SLOGGING : My son says,This time Papa u will have to make it : Innocence is BLISS Joined: 16 Jan 2012 Posts: 210 Location: India WE: Sales (Energy and Utilities) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 14 [2] , given: 30 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 26 Aug 2012, 14:42 2 This post received KUDOS removing the clutter, the stem reduces to : more than three times as many institutions charge fees of under$8000 than those that charge over $16,000. Thus the constn we need to zoom in is : As X........As Y X - Institutions ( Plural ) , --------this calls for a Plural Y (Those) leading to E : more than three times AS many institutions charge fees of under$8,000 a year ................ AS those charging over $16,000. Intern Joined: 17 Oct 2011 Posts: 27 Location: Taiwan GMAT 1: 590 Q39 V34 GMAT 2: 680 Q47 V35 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 16 [1] , given: 10 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 07 Mar 2012, 02:05 1 This post received KUDOS The OA seems to be E according to my document. e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1839 Followers: 1458 Kudos [?]: 4404 [1] , given: 213 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 01 Oct 2012, 08:06 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post IndianExpress wrote: It would also be great if you can clarify the concept behind "those charging" being equivalent to "those that charge". As I understand, "those charging" is present continuous while "those that charge" is simple present. Thanks a ton! Hello IndianExpress, I will now address your question on tense "those charging" and "those that charge". Those charging those that charge Here "charging" is not a verb. So it does not have any verb tense. It is a verb-ing modifier, which definitely represents an action but not in the role of a verb. It basically takes on whatever verb tense the main clause has. Yesterday night the sky looked beautiful with the stars shining so brightly. Tonight the sky looks beautiful with the stars shining so brightly. Notice the verb-ing "shining". Given what I have explained here, please give me your analysis of these two sentences in terms of the timing of the actions - specifically the action of shining of stars. I look forward to your response. Also, please review this article on verb-ing modifiers Thanks, Payal _________________ Learn how eGMATers improved their GMAT scores by 100+ points - Click here Learn about our newly released Quant Online course here. e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1839 Followers: 1458 Kudos [?]: 4404 [1] , given: 213 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 24 Jan 2013, 06:47 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post [quote="Sachin9] Had we had 'as those that charge' as another option, would this have been a better choice? Its true that we are supposed to choose the best of the 5 answer choices. I am just trying to understand whether parallelism is absolutely needed as in this case, the parallelism is not with respect to structure but with respect to the meaning.. Please let us know which one would be preferred: parallelism with structure or parallelism with meaning. Regards, Sach[/quote] Hi Sachin, Well, "as those that charge" is certainly the correct construction. However, on GMAT, out of 5 naswer choices, only 1 will be correct. You will never have to choose between two grammatacally as well as logically correct naswer choices. "as those that charge" and "as those chraging" convey the same meaning. These are just two different ways of writing the same thing and both are equalyy correct. So I doubt, you will ever have to choose from such options. However, if you had these two options then yes, you would have gone with the later to maintain absolutely identical parallelism in the sentence. Now, in parallelism, we try to keep the entities as grammatically similar as possible. But, grammatical parallelism must not be maintained at the cost of logical parallelism. Always remember that LOGIC is utmost important in parallelism. Logic governs the grammatical structure of entities in the list. That's why many a times we see "imperfect list" where the entities do not always have identical grammatical structure. We must maintain the identical grammatical structure as long as we can do it. But the logic must be maintained all the time. You may read the following article on this topic that discusses the nuances of this topic: parallelism-grammar-vs-logic-141946.html Hope this helps. Thanks. Shraddha _________________ Learn how eGMATers improved their GMAT scores by 100+ points - Click here Learn about our newly released Quant Online course here. e-GMAT Representative Joined: 02 Nov 2011 Posts: 1839 Followers: 1458 Kudos [?]: 4404 [1] , given: 213 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 08 Nov 2013, 09:32 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post Hi there! Since this is a controversial question, our team is discussing it. We'll get back to you as soon as we can! Regards, Meghna _________________ Learn how eGMATers improved their GMAT scores by 100+ points - Click here Learn about our newly released Quant Online course here. Verbal Forum Moderator Status: After a long voyage, land is visible. Joined: 22 Mar 2013 Posts: 989 Location: India GPA: 3.51 WE: Information Technology (Computer Software) Followers: 88 Kudos [?]: 642 [1] , given: 222 According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 21 Feb 2014, 07:39 1 This post received KUDOS 1 This post was BOOKMARKED D is the right answer. Format of comparison changes with moving verb inside as many as or keeping it be before as many as. For such question always look at the structure and make your own sentence in simple english. E.g 3 times as many Americans were killed in Civil war as killed in Vietnam war. (my standard simple sentence) bcz Americans were killed is inside as many .... as; we do not need repetition of Americans after as we just need a verb for a good construction of sentence. Now look at this original question you will find D is technically perfect . Another Eg: E.g 3 times as many Americans were killed in Civil war as Indians were killed in battle of Panipath. E.g 3 times as many Americans were killed in Civil war as Indians in battle of Panipath. Now do'er of action are different, thus above comparison is valid. Go to this link: according-to-a-1996-survey-by-the-national-association-of-69882.html HARD WIRE these simple examples in your brain as it save precious time while choosing technically right answer. List down every possible way of comparison sentence structure and hard wire it in brain. _________________ Piyush K ----------------------- Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to try just one more time. ― Thomas A. Edison Don't forget to press--> Kudos My Articles: 1. WOULD: when to use? | 2. All GMATPrep RCs (New) Tip: Before exam a week earlier don't forget to exhaust all gmatprep problems specially for "sentence correction". Manager Status: GMAT Instructor Affiliations: EnterMBA.in Joined: 23 Jun 2013 Posts: 181 Location: India Prasad: Hariharan GRE 1: 2280 Q790 V710 GPA: 3.3 WE: Editorial and Writing (Education) Followers: 7 Kudos [?]: 68 [1] , given: 4 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 05 Dec 2014, 21:00 1 This post received KUDOS A survey compares entities/actions within a specific time frame. Here, the intent is to compare how much certain institutions (currently) charge versus how much some other institutions (currently) charge. In other words, the survey is comparing two "dynamic" entities -- based on how much they charge today: 1. X institutions (currently) charge over$16K.
2. More than 3X institutions (currently) charge under $8K. (Set C of institutions) Choice E converts St. 1 about institutions that currently charge over$16K (a dynamic set) into a statement about institutions that have charged over $16K over the course of history ("institutions charging over$16K"). These institutions (Set A) may or may not be charging over $16K today. Additionally, other institutions that traditionally did not charge over$16K (Set B) may have hiked their fees and could be charging over $16K today. The survey compares Set C to "Set A + Set B" but the wording of Choice E makes it compare Set C (a dynamic set) to only Set A (a static set). By including the verb, "charge" (versus the adjective, "charging"), Choice D makes it clear that the survey correctly compares institutions that currently charge under$8K to those that currently charge over $16K. _________________ GMAT and MBA admissions Coach EnterMBA Manager Joined: 08 Oct 2009 Posts: 67 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 5 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 17 Oct 2009, 10:05 [E]? Since you have 3x AS many, you need as in the comparison and not than, so eliminate A, B and C. Need to compare universities to universities, so need those. Director Joined: 24 Aug 2007 Posts: 954 WE 1: 3.5 yrs IT WE 2: 2.5 yrs Retail chain Followers: 59 Kudos [?]: 830 [0], given: 40 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 07 Jun 2010, 22:15 I think this was simple thats y I missed the correct OA. _________________ Want to improve your CR: cr-methods-an-approach-to-find-the-best-answers-93146.html Tricky Quant problems: 50-tricky-questions-92834.html Important Grammer Fundamentals: key-fundamentals-of-grammer-our-crucial-learnings-on-sc-93659.html Intern Joined: 11 Apr 2012 Posts: 42 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 17 [0], given: 93 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 26 Aug 2012, 01:33 Experts @e-gmat could you help us here. OA is E . But the between D & E its a nightmare to pick the right one Manager Status: exam is close ... dont know if i ll hit that number Joined: 06 Jun 2011 Posts: 207 Location: India Concentration: International Business, Marketing GMAT Date: 10-09-2012 GPA: 3.2 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 1 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 26 Aug 2012, 20:22 is those here referring to independent institutions ... please explain.. i selected d as i overlooked those in the option _________________ just one more month for exam... Manager Status: SLOGGING : My son says,This time Papa u will have to make it : Innocence is BLISS Joined: 16 Jan 2012 Posts: 210 Location: India WE: Sales (Energy and Utilities) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 14 [0], given: 30 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 26 Aug 2012, 21:52 mohan514 wrote: is those here referring to independent institutions ... please explain.. i selected d as i overlooked those in the option Hi, Do we have any other Referrent of THOSE other than INSTITUTIONS = what can THOSE refer back to other than institutions = Guess That's the onliest logical antecedent of THOSE in the stimulus. Lets substitute THOSE = INSTITUTIONS in our equation and see if it still holds : More than three time AS many INSTITUTIONS charge 8000$...................... AS INSTITUTIONS charging 16000$( Seems Logical, Equation still holds ) ie institutions charging 16000 = x , institutions charging 8000 = 3x Manager Joined: 27 May 2010 Posts: 203 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 3 Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink] 26 Aug 2012, 22:49 vinay911 wrote: Experts @e-gmat could you help us here. OA is E . But the between D & E its a nightmare to pick the right one According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of College an University Business Officers, more than three times as many independent institutions of higher education charge tuition and fees of under$8,000 a year than those that charge over $16,000. D) as charge - as charge over$16,000 sounds incorrect because independent institutions is not singular
E) as those charging - Correct because plural & charging.
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Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink]  25 Sep 2012, 08:31
Hi Payal,
Isnt the option D a classic case of ellipsis. i.e Colleges is understood by default. Please share your reasoning

Thanks
Himanshu
egmat wrote:

Per choice D - More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as ____ charge over $16000 Per choice E - More than 3x as many colleges charge certain fees as those that charge over$16000

Now what are the entities being compared - colleges that charge < \$8000 & colleges that charge > 16000
Choice E clearly states that comparison.

Whereas if you look choice D, it is missing the "COLLEGE" part of the comparison. It only states the "charge" part.

I hope this helps. Let me know if you have any other questions regarding this.

Regards,
Payal

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Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink]  26 Sep 2012, 07:46
I also chose D based on ellepsis.
Payal - Kindly clarify the ellepsis concept in this scenario. It would also be great if you can clarify the concept behind "those charging" being equivalent to "those that charge". As I understand, "those charging" is present continuous while "those that charge" is simple present.

Thanks a ton!
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Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink]  01 Oct 2012, 04:50
as many X as Y ... as many institutions as other colleges
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Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of [#permalink]  01 Oct 2012, 09:47
Thanks for the amazing explanation Payal. Your explanations are always superb.

I think I am pretty clear on both the concepts now. Just to re-iterate, ellepsis can only be used if there is absolutely no ambiguity regarding the meaning. I think this is the only rule around ellepsis. Let me know if I am not understanding this correctly.
In the sentence in question, choice D actually makes the sentence a little confusing, hence ellepsis cannot be used.

Regarding the verb-ing modifiers, I am actually familiar with the concept that they take the verb tense of the main clause. In fact, verb-ing modifiers are pretty common and I myself might have used them multiple times in the past.
I was somehow not able to apply the concept at the right place, probably need to practice a little more.

In both the sentences that you have mentioned in your post, the verb-ing modifier (shining) does actually take the respective verb tense (looked and looks respectively).

Thanks again!!!!
IndianExpress
Re: According to a 1996 survey by the National Association of   [#permalink] 01 Oct 2012, 09:47

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