4) According to a recent study, attending a single-sex high school aids an adolescent’s physical growth. Cited as evidence is the finding that during the first two years of high school, the average boy in an all-boys school grew five inches, and the average girl in an all-girls school grew four inches.
The answer to which of the following questions is needed in order to evaluate the reasoning presented in the study?
(A) Why was it that the first two years of high school were chosen as the focus of the study?
(B) Did some of the boys in the study grow less than five inches while they were in high school?
(C) How much do the average male student and the average female student in a coeducational school grow during their first two years of high school?
(D) Did the girls in the study have as nutritious a diet as the boys during the time the study was being conducted?
(E) What was the average height of the boys and the average height of the girls upon entering high school?
In the argument, the conclusion “attending a single-sex high school aids an adolescent’s physical growth” is drawn from the evidence “in the single-sex high school, average growth in the first two years are 5 inches and 4 inches for boys and girls respectively”. However, no information is provided on the average growth of boys and girls in the coeducational school, and therefore we cannot ascertain the truth of the conclusion.
A) There is no information provided on the average growth of boys and girls in the coeducational school. Wrong.
B) This question makes no sense: average growth 5 inches means some had more than 5 inches and some had less than 5 inches growth. Wrong.
C) Correct. This question correctly addresses the missing point on the growth in coeducational school.
D) This question is immaterial as the argument here is not on growth of boys vs. growth of girls. Point of discussion is growth in single-sex school vs. growth in coeducational school. Wrong.
E) Point of consideration is the growth in first two years and not the height at the time of entrance. Wrong.Correct Answer is C.