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According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers,

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According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2007, 21:37
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B
C
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According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, reducing nicotine intake, even by up to 50 percent, does not provide significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back was not lower than that for heavier smokers, nor did the “reducers” fare any better when it came to cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?
A) The majority of study participants minimized their withdrawal symptoms through the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum.
B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.
C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.
D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.
E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.

I will post OA shortly
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: CR - Norwegian Smoker [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2007, 22:07
natuago91 wrote:
According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, reducing nicotine intake, even by up to 50 percent, does not provide significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back was not lower than that for heavier smokers, nor did the “reducers” fare any better when it came to cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?
A) The majority of study participants minimized their withdrawal symptoms through the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum.
B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.
C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.
D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.
E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.

I will post OA shortly


C this would show that the participants were not at the same initial levels thus cannot be compared with each other.

I was also tempted by D though...
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 03:06
I find B tempting:
the statement says reducing does not have a positive effect. What if the positive effect is neutralized by another factor, namely dining in places where smoking is permitted and thus the participants continue inhaling the toxic fumes.
This would undermine the conclusion that reducing is not beneficiary.
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Re: CR - Norwegian Smoker [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 03:11
natuago91 wrote:
According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, reducing nicotine intake, even by up to 50 percent, does not provide significant health benefits.
The mortality rate for those who cut back was not lower than that for heavier smokers, nor did the “reducers” fare any better when it came to cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?
A) The majority of study participants minimized their withdrawal symptoms through the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum. B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.
C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.
D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.
E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.

I will post OA shortly


Their use of patches points to the possibility that their intake of nicotine was not cut in half
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 03:16
ronron wrote:
I find B tempting:
the statement says reducing does not have a positive effect. What if the positive effect is neutralized by another factor, namely dining in places where smoking is permitted and thus the participants continue inhaling the toxic fumes.
This would undermine the conclusion that reducing is not beneficiary.


you cant assume it...
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Re: CR - Norwegian Smoker [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 03:23
kevincan wrote:
natuago91 wrote:
According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, reducing nicotine intake, even by up to 50 percent, does not provide significant health benefits.
The mortality rate for those who cut back was not lower than that for heavier smokers, nor did the “reducers” fare any better when it came to cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?
A) The majority of study participants minimized their withdrawal symptoms through the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum. B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.
C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.
D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.
E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.

I will post OA shortly


Their use of patches points to the possibility that their intake of nicotine was not cut in half


I am just questioning the interpretation of the question...
Would you look at the stem differently, if it were to ask "Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the study described above?
To me, A is attacking the validity (or may be representativeness) of the study, whereas the question is posed as "findings of the study".
I hope I made sense :)
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 03:27
I was just discussing this as well (with my colleague at work) :lol:
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 03:30
ronron wrote:
I was just discussing this as well (with my colleague at work) :lol:

I wish I could do that as well.. :)
i took 2days from my holiday to prep a bit...
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 07:53
I am for C too
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Re: CR - Norwegian Smoker [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 08:14
natuago91 wrote:
According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, reducing nicotine intake, even by up to 50 percent, does not provide significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back was not lower than that for heavier smokers, nor did the “reducers” fare any better when it came to cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?

A) The majority of study participants minimized their withdrawal symptoms through the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum.

This suggests that the use of nicotine was continued through other means.

B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.

The possible effects of second hand smoke are invoked to trick us into believing the effect would be significant to curtail the benefits of reduced smoking

C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.

I think it entices us to make our own assumptions of how reducing smoking would affect overall health depending on the length of pre-quitting exposure to smoking.

D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.

Irrelevant. Passage does not investigate the effects of quitting smoking; only reduced smoking is discussed
E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.

irrelevant

I will post OA shortly
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 09:46
Ughhh this one is really easy

A

Reduction in 50% doesn't do anything

but A says they didn't actually reduce intake by 50% because patches provide nicotine (you can assume this guys, GMAT people aren't stupid)

.............
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 10:06
I think A as the participants never really stopped the use of nicotine. Whats the OA
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 10:50
I think C is irrelevant....reducing intake by 50%,so initial intake doesn't matter according to me.
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 11:43
vineetgupta wrote:
I think C is irrelevant....reducing intake by 50%,so initial intake doesn't matter according to me.


For survey related questions, one of the 1st checks we need to do is to validate the study sample. Now, lets look at C.

I think what C means is that because the study participants all had varying initial intake, the study sample is contaminated and cannot be considered valid.

Because the study sample is not valid, the conclusion is probably wrong. So, C must be the answer.

My 2 cents...
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 12:08
ncprasad wrote:
vineetgupta wrote:
I think C is irrelevant....reducing intake by 50%,so initial intake doesn't matter according to me.


For survey related questions, one of the 1st checks we need to do is to validate the study sample. Now, lets look at C.

I think what C means is that because the study participants all had varying initial intake, the study sample is contaminated and cannot be considered valid.

Because the study sample is not valid, the conclusion is probably wrong. So, C must be the answer.

My 2 cents...


I don't completely agree with this. If the initial intakes were different then those who smoked less than others should at least have scored marginally better. Also, since the initial intakes were different for different participants - some of them would have smoked less than the others and hence ought to have fared better..

May be I am unable to explain ...
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 12:15
dwivedys wrote:
ncprasad wrote:
vineetgupta wrote:
I think C is irrelevant....reducing intake by 50%,so initial intake doesn't matter according to me.


For survey related questions, one of the 1st checks we need to do is to validate the study sample. Now, lets look at C.

I think what C means is that because the study participants all had varying initial intake, the study sample is contaminated and cannot be considered valid.

Because the study sample is not valid, the conclusion is probably wrong. So, C must be the answer.

My 2 cents...


I don't completely agree with this. If the initial intakes were different then those who smoked less than others should at least have scored marginally better. Also, since the initial intakes were different for different participants - some of them would have smoked less than the others and hence ought to have fared better..

May be I am unable to explain ...


I agree with your logic. But C refutes the conclusion not by directly contradicting it, but by attacking the methodology used to arrive at the conclusion. In other words, C does not contradict the conclusion that smokers did not benefit by cutting on the intake. Rather,it tries to establish that the methodology of the survey is incorrect. Think about this. If a survey publishes a logical result, but does not select the samples properly, it will still not be accepted even if everybody agrees that the result is most probably true.

Anyways, I could be wrong.
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 12:30
A looks like the best choice, though i am not sure.

because the study just indicates the reduced nicotine intake by 50%; so how can we be sure that the study hasn't already considered the nicotine intake through the patches and chewing gums in the calculation?

if A is not true then B it is.
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Re: CR - Norwegian Smoker [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 12:57
natuago91 wrote:
According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, reducing nicotine intake, even by up to 50 percent, does not provide significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back was not lower than that for heavier smokers, nor did the “reducers” fare any better when it came to cardiovascular disease.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?
A) The majority of study participants minimized their withdrawal symptoms through the use of nicotine patches and chewing gum.
B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.
C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.
D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.
E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.

I will post OA shortly



Is it 'A'
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 14:21
I would go with B. To weaken the argument, we need to find out other causes which can neutralize the reduction in nicotine intake eg. passive smoking.
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 [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2007, 14:36
I don't think it is A. A assumes that nicotine is the only element in cigaretes that is detrimental to health. Well, what about tar, carbon monoxide etc?

I would go with [b]B[/b]. It shows that the reduction in smoking in reality is not as big as it is believed to be (by the people conducting the study).
  [#permalink] 23 Aug 2007, 14:36
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