According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market

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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2008, 16:40
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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Zarrolou on 15 Jun 2013, 00:08, edited 1 time in total.
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23 Sep 2008, 23:07
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bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

A is the correct answer. Usage of 'that' makes all the difference. "Gains reflect the confidence that economy will avoid..." is correct. "Gains refect the confidence (in the economy) to avoid..." is flawed.

'in the economy' modifies 'confidence' in options B,C & D. You must try to make sense without reading the modifier in between. Try reading "gains reflect the confidence to avoid...". Does that make any sense?

Ofcourse E is too wordier & flawed that you'll be able to pick between A & E.

Hey guys, surprisingly, this is one exceptio to the use of idiom: 'instead of'. Can someone explain why is this exception?
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24 Sep 2008, 04:48
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bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

I dont' know why it used past perfect tense for A..There is even no single past tense in the sentence!!!
Not mentioning the past perfect tense, I think A is right.
IN B...I am not sure if we can still have "rather to come" without and connecting words such as "and". And maybe it would be better if "in avoiding" is used rather than "to avoid". Overall, B looks okay to me.
In C...confidence in economy's ability...sounds not quite right. Again, past perfect tense. So I drop C.
D. Past progressive tense makes me a bit uncomfortable, but I think D is better than B.
E...Awkward..."with it instead coming" and passive expression.

For me B and E are the winners. If OA is A, I do need an explanation on the reason of using Past Perfect tense there. THx.
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30 Mar 2010, 14:16
Can anyone explain why is past perfect used in the oa a?

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31 Mar 2010, 06:04
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31 Mar 2010, 06:09
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Feared---- reflect-----avoid----follow;;; this is the time line I could come up with... Feared needs past perfect relative to avoid. I am not sure if that could be it. But from my understanding, you assign tenses relative to present tense

btw what is the resource for this question? Also, it could be error one the question as choice e corrects this error.

-Abhi

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06 Apr 2010, 04:59
This Q is from the OG.

Can someone explain why part participle rather than simple past or past progressive is used in A?

Thanks.
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07 Jul 2010, 12:22
I chose E just because of the past perfect tense. Per MGMAT SC, past perfect is strictly not to be used unless the sentence is already talking about an Event X in the past and Event Y occurred before event X. (
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07 Jul 2010, 22:37
(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come-----

Usage of past perfect (had feared) is correct.

fear was in the past before anyone could see where the economy was really headed. (the economy avoided the recession later). All I know from SC is for sure that some people had fear earlier in the year.

The best way to solve SC is notice the split "rather" Vs instead. Here instead> rather. Because rather than doom the economy came in for a "soft-landing" - I see a replacement.

Between A ad C. A it is.

vscid wrote:
Can anyone explain why is past perfect used in the oa a?

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07 Jul 2010, 22:57
Can you elaborate on "instead" versus "rather".

nusmavrik wrote:
(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come-----

Usage of past perfect (had feared) is correct.

fear was in the past before anyone could see where the economy was really headed. (the economy avoided the recession later). All I know from SC is for sure that some people had fear earlier in the year.

The best way to solve SC is notice the split "rather" Vs instead. Here instead> rather. Because rather than doom the economy came in for a "soft-landing" - I see a replacement.

Between A ad C. A it is.

vscid wrote:
Can anyone explain why is past perfect used in the oa a?

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07 Jul 2010, 23:14
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Rather - shows preference
e.g
1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings.
2) I want a cat rather than a dog

Instead - suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another.
2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work.

E is wrong. You can kill C because instead is not followed by infinitive.
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come

pdarun wrote:
Can you elaborate on "instead" versus "rather".

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20 May 2011, 05:38
a) According to the OE in the OG 12th: "The original sentence successfully avoids the problems that may occur in a long sentence with multiple modifiers. Two subordinate clauses begin with "that", and one of them is contained within another".
Could someone please explain: why does, in this case, the sentence successfully avoid this usual problem?, and Why, in other cases, other sentences can't?

b) How can one be sure that "come" is parallel with "avoid", and not with "reflect" of the main clause?,

c) In B, why does "rather to come" is wrong?
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01 Jul 2011, 05:19
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bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

just because of
1 correct usage of 'that'
2 'Avoid' and 'instead' are parallel
hope this helps
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15 Oct 2011, 20:22
Hi all,

In option A, 'economy will avoid...' -> can the economy do the avoiding on it's own? isn't that flawed?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2011, 23:30
IMO A, past perfect bcz analyst feared about a recession earlier, which is not the case now, when they expect a soft landing.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2012, 17:54
I picked the answer A for this question:

A. This clearly states the clause within the clause. Parallelism is also maintained

The clauses should can be broken down like this:

That the economy (outer clause):
- will avoid the recession AND
- will come

The recession that (inner clause):
- many feared earlier in the year

B. The use of "what" is incorrect because it is not the best relative pronoun to introduce a subordinate clause in this case. Also, "rather to come" is really confusing.

C. "In the economy's ability..." is a very awkward sentence. Again, "instead to come" does not sound very good either.

D. The use of past progressive tense "were fearing" is incorrect. The use of past perfect should be the tense of choice. Also, "rather to come" is a strange way to word the clause after "and."

E. The most confusing part of this answer choice is the pronoun "it." This pronoun is supposed to refer to the economy, but it is part of the subordinate clause that contains "the recession" as the subject. This cannot be correct.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2013, 00:57
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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

Choices B and D
"growing confidence in the economy to avoid the recession"
are unidomatic, and clearly wrong.

Choice E is not parallel, and the two clauses cannot be connected by "with"
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Choice A is parallel "will avoid (...) come", but my main reason to discard C and pick A is the word "something"
(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
What is "something"? the recession or the ability?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 12:09
Hi EGMAT,

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Here correct answer is A. But why we are using past perfect tense. here we are talking about three time periods :past (fear of recession), present (time when the sentence was spoken), and future (will avoid recession). Can't we show past by simple past instead of past perfect? I am unable to get this as there cannot be the case of if.. then.. condition.
Also why choice C is wrong? Is it due to parallelism issue?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2013, 23:01
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karanthakurani wrote:
Hi EGMAT,

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Here correct answer is A. But why we are using past perfect tense. here we are talking about three time periods :past (fear of recession), present (time when the sentence was spoken), and future (will avoid recession). Can't we show past by simple past instead of past perfect? I am unable to get this as there cannot be the case of if.. then.. condition.
Also why choice C is wrong? Is it due to parallelism issue?

Hi karanthakurani,

Yes, the usage of past perfect tense is a bit tricky here. We need to understand the structure and the meaning of this sentence.

"According to some analysts" is equal to saying "Analysts said". This is just implied in the sentence. This is the past tense event for the analysts.

Also "earlier this year" makes it clear that the analysts "feared" before they stated their opinion. So the usage of past perfect tense is correct here.

In the presence of words that establish time sequencing, such "earlier in the year", use of past perfect tense is optional and not incorrect. You may or may not choose to use past perfect tense in the presence of such words.

This is the reason why Choice A is correct here.

In Choice C, placement of “earlier in the year” is not correct. It suggests that recession was earlier in the year and not many had feared it earlier in the year. Also, use of “instead to” is not idiomatic.

Hope this helps

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2013, 09:24
Can anybody please explain the difference in use of "confidence that" and "confidence in" .I thought confidence in is a correct idiom.Expert please help!!!
Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market   [#permalink] 24 Dec 2013, 09:24

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