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After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most

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After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most popular aerosol spray was found to contain dangerous levels of p-dichlorobenzene, a toxic substance which irritates the lungs and mucous membranes and may cause cancer. The company decided to retool its aerosol spray formula and successfully removed all p- dichlorobenzene from its line of household sprays. Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ aerosol sprays are now less toxic to consumers than ever before.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the author’s conclusion?

A. The company’s most popular aerosol spray has always contained ammonia, which reacts with chlorinated products to produce deadly chloramine gas.

B. Some people who drink water containing p-dichlorobenzene for many years have become anemic.

C. P-dichlorobenzene has been used widely in Europe for many years as a room deodorizer with no complaints or significant lawsuits.

D. Aerosol propellants still used in some of the retooled formulas may be flammable and may cause nervous system damage if inhaled.

E. Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ new formula for its most popular aerosol spray now contains trace amounts of petroleum distillates, which are flammable, and may cause fatal pulmonary edema in sensitive individuals.


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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by avohden on 07 Nov 2013, 20:12, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2013, 09:27
Why does A not work?

Is it beacuse the ammonia has always been in the formula, thus it has always been toxic?
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2013, 18:37
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The conclusion is that the "aerosol sprays are now less toxic to consumers than ever before." but as a result of what?

The premise is that the company removed the "dangerous levels of p-dichlorobenzene, a toxic substance which
irritates the lungs and mucous membranes and may cause cancer."


In answer A, the fact that ammonia has always been in the formula has no bearing on the lower toxicity of the new formula. Its just one chemical in the spray that is toxic. The answer does not strengthen or weaken the conclusion. It merely states a fact about the aerosol spray that was not included in the question stimulus.

Per my Princeton Review guide, the answer to a weaken question will attack an assumption or provide information that makes the conclusion not true.

I guess an assumption in the argument is that when the company retooled the formula they didn't add any new chemicals that would be considered a toxic substance. Answer A does address this assumption or provide any new information as a result of the new formula.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2013, 05:32
A is a trick which fully destroys the argument. Another trick is D which says that new formula "may be flammable". The E is the best because gives strong relation to new formula which is "flammable"
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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Temurkhon wrote:
A is a trick which fully destroys the argument. Another trick is D which says that new formula "may be flammable". The E is the best because gives strong relation to new formula which is "flammable"



I don't think that the trick in D is because of "may be flammable". Otherwise, answer E would point to the same flaw. I think that the trick in D lays in the word "Aerosol propellants", which is a generalization. E goes straight to the point of "Re-Fresh Air Fresheners".
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2013, 12:36
Official Explanation

The correct response is (E).
The conclusion relies on the phrase “less toxic” to claim the NEW aerosol sprays and safer than the OLD sprays produced by Re-Fresh. This conclusion will be weakened by any information which proves that the NEW sprays are in fact just as toxic, or more toxic.

The phrase “now contains” in (E) indicated that the harmful petroleum distillates were no present in the old formula, so it’s possible that the new formula is in fact more toxic.

(A) might be tempting, but if both the new and old formulas contain this same ingredient, it does not do enough to prove the new formulas is in fact more toxic, which is a stronger refutation of the conclusion.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2013, 02:04
Correct E,

A is out of scope because the conclusion says that the "the formula now is less lethal than ever before". So already existing compounds are out of scope.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2013, 01:06
Only A and E are strong contender.
Can anybody tell me why the answer is E?...In E, the group is narrowed down to only sensitive individuals, where as in A, it is referring to the consumer as a whole, as given in the stimulus..."Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ aerosol sprays are now less toxic to consumers than ever before."

Thanks in advance...
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2014, 04:08
Ans choice A is chosen the most after correct choice. I would rule out A due to below reason


A. The company’s most popular aerosol spray has always contained ammonia, which reacts with chlorinated products to produce deadly chloramine gas.

Ammonia is present in aerosol, but we need to understand that as per the passage, ammonia by itself is not deadly. It needs to react with chlorinated products. Now we are not sure if the body already has chlorinated products. Hence we cant conclude that present of ammonia is harmful.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2016, 00:31
One can easily eliminate B, c and D
when it comes to weaken the conclusion, then one has to add some information that directly hurts the conclusion of the argument. The conclusion is "Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ aerosol sprays are now less toxic to consumers than ever before"
A says that aerosol spray has always contained ammonia but the conclusion says about the new aerosol formula. On the other hand, E says "now contains trace amounts of petroleum distillates" and is flammable. this directly hurts the conclusion and thus is the right choice.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2016, 11:02
Fell for option D , nit I think it should be out because it is too generic ! Good question :-)
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2016, 19:00
nechets wrote:
Temurkhon wrote:
A is a trick which fully destroys the argument. Another trick is D which says that new formula "may be flammable". The E is the best because gives strong relation to new formula which is "flammable"



I don't think that the trick in D is because of "may be flammable". Otherwise, answer E would point to the same flaw. I think that the trick in D lays in the word "Aerosol propellants", which is a generalization. E goes straight to the point of "Re-Fresh Air Fresheners".


I believe A and D are wrong for the same reason because they both point out something that both the NEW and OLD formula contain. Bringing up the fact that X and Y both contain toxic chemical does not weaken the conclusion that Y is less toxic than X.

I made the mistake of choosing D, thinking that "aerosol propellants still used in some of the retooled formulas" may be enough to weaken the conclusion. I agree that E is the best because E points out something toxic that new formula contains (though we do not know whether it is more, less, or just as toxic as p-dichlorobenzene).
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2016, 23:43
E


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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2016, 23:50
A incorrect

Since the company only claims that it is less harmful
therefore the ammonia content present earlier and now doesnot makes sense.

B.,C, Dout of scope
D refers to aerosols propellants and we are concern about aerosol spray

so we are left woth E

this choice clearly weakens as it provides the harmfulness of the new spray formula.


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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2016, 00:22
I think A and D cannot be in race of correct as mentioned in each that some compound X , which was already there in the formula , still present in the new formula
As conclusion is based on the fact some compound Y is removed now and now new formula is safe. These old compounds are equally dangerous as they were.
E is answer
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2016, 14:06
mbaprep2016 wrote:
I think A and D cannot be in race of correct as mentioned in each that some compound X , which was already there in the formula , still present in the new formula
As conclusion is based on the fact some compound Y is removed now and now new formula is safe. These old compounds are equally dangerous as they were.
E is answer



As conclusion is Aersol sprays are now less toxic than ever before, E option says new formula contains smthing harmful, so it weakens the claim that now it is less toxic. A says that toxic substance has always been there. D talks about propellent.
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2016, 04:47
i cannot understand why D is not correct
A says something about cl reaction which may or may not be present in the house
E talks about flammable (not worth considering we talk about toxicity only )and the toxicity mentioned is only for sensitive personnel
where as D talks that main component is toxic aerosol propellant

please explain ?
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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oishik2910 wrote:
i cannot understand why D is not correct
A says something about cl reaction which may or may not be present in the house
E talks about flammable (not worth considering we talk about toxicity only )and the toxicity mentioned is only for sensitive personnel
where as D talks that main component is toxic aerosol propellant

please explain ?


A and D: Both can be eliminated using the same reasoning - In each of the options, the harmful criterion mentioned was previously present as well in the aerosol spray (A: "has always contained" / D: "still used") - there has been no CHANGE in toxicity because of these two criteria. Because p-dichlorobenzene has been eliminated, whereas these two criteria mentioned in A and D have not changed, the overall toxicity has been reduced. Thus these two options do not weaken the argument.

Option E on the other hand discusses about a substance that increases the toxicity of the aerosol because this substance was not there in the spray before ("now contains") - therefore it is possible that the reduction in toxicity because of elimination of p-dichlorobenzene is offset by the use of this petroleum distillate.

(The flammability is irrelevant as you have correctly identified.)
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Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2016, 10:48
okkay nw i get the point
thanks for explaining
Re: After a recent lawsuit, Re-Fresh Air Fresheners’ most   [#permalink] 10 Sep 2016, 10:48
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