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After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe

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Re: After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2013, 11:41
9 mins, 3 correct. please explain q116 and q117.
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After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 12:47
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This can be done within 10 mins. I goofed up in 117 but then realized my mistake. 116 is tricky :)
115. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) defending a controversial approach
(B) criticizing an accepted view
(C) summarizing research findings
>>
P1: Problem is introduced.
P2: A Research is introduced in this regard.
P3: Closes the discussion with a final note on the research.
So overall its summarizing the research.

(D) contrasting competing theories
(E) describing an innovative technique

116. The authors’ study indicates that, in comparison with the outermost regions of a typical spiral galaxy, the region just outside the nucleus can be characterized as having
(A) higher rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(B) lower rotational velocity and higher luminosity
(C) lower rotational velocity and lower luminosity
(D) similar rotational velocity and higher luminosity
>> Instead we have found that the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly.

(E) similar rotational velocity and similar luminosity

117. The authors’ suggestion that “as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wavelength with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth” (lines 34–37) would be most weakened if which of the following were discovered to be true?
(A) Spiral galaxies are less common than types of galaxies that contain little nonluminous matter.
>> Author concludes that its the low intensity wavelength of NLM because of which it cant be detected on earth. so assumption is, spiral galaxy is full of NLM. But what if there is not ample or very little NLM in spiral galaxy.Then it weakens the conclusion as its the scarcity and not the WL of the NLM which is resulting in this behavior.

(B) Luminous and nonluminous matter are composed of the same basic elements.
(C) The bright nucleus of a typical spiral galaxy also contains some nonluminous matter.
(D) The density of the observable universe is greater than most previous estimates have suggested.
(E) Some galaxies do not rotate or rotate too slowly for their rotational velocity to be measured.

118. It can be inferred from information presented in the passage that if the density of the universe were equivalent to significantly less than three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter, which of the following would be true as a consequence?
(A) Luminosity would be a true indicator of mass.
(B) Different regions in spiral galaxies would rotate at the same velocity.
(C) The universe would continue to expand indefinitely.
(D) The density of the invisible matter in the universe would have to be more than 70 times the density of the luminous matter.
(E) More of the invisible matter in spiral galaxies would have to be located in their nuclei than in their outer regions.

119. The authors propose all of the following as possibly contributing to the “missing matter” in spiral galaxies EXCEPT
(A) massive black holes
(B) small black holes
(C) small, dim stars
(D) massive stars
(E) large planets
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After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2016, 09:41
I still do not understand Q 117
mikemcgarry please clear my doubt here.

In option A) Spiral galaxies are less common than types of galaxies that contain little nonluminous matter.
It could be very possible that the researchers already took this into account. The passage states that the researchers studied typical spiral galaxies and through their studies concluded that 90% percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wavelength with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth.

Researchers line of reasoning - spiral galaxies are less common --- spiral galaxies research suggest that there's x amount of non-luminous mass --- considering everything, this accounts to 90%.
The passage never mentions that the researchers assumed that spiral galaxies were very common. How can we assume that they wrongly estimated the proportion of spiral galaxies.
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Re: After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2016, 00:02
vabhs192003 wrote:
Completed within 10mins with 1 wrong. :x :x

Though I got 117 correct using POE :!: I would like to know the definite rationale to eliminate option D.:?:


Notice that the author's assertion is not very precise: "as much as 90 percent of the mass . . . " So if we find that the observable universe is denser than we thought, it wouldn't really undermine this vague assertion. We would just adjust the maximum down by some unknown amount. Furthermore, the author's team is not basing their assertion on current estimates of the density of the observable universe, but on the observation of galaxies. This is why (A) presents a problem for this view. If it turned out that spiral galaxies like ours, which are rich in nonluminous matter, were uncommon, this would undermine the entire basis of the author's idea.
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Re: After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2016, 23:24
vabhs192003 wrote:
Completed within 10mins with 1 wrong. :x :x

Though I got 117 correct using POE :!: I would like to know the definite rationale to eliminate option D.:?:



Hi,

The author wants to imply that almost 90% of the Universe doesn't have luminous mass.

If D) Was correct

It implies that there is even more invisible mass than that was thought, which strengthens the statement rather than weakening it. It's a classic CR question.
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Re: After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2016, 01:15
C
C
A
C
D
4/5
14 MIN
THE AMOUNT OF TIME TAKEN IS KILLING ME
Re: After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2016, 01:15

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