After several attempts to distract his young parrot
from chewing on furniture, George reluctantly took an
expertтАЩs advice and gently hit the parrotтАЩs beak whenever
the bird started to chew furniture. The bird stopped
chewing furniture, but it is now afraid of hands and will
sometimes bite. Since chewing on the furniture would
not have hurt the bird, George should not have hit it.
When CarlaтАЩs puppy escaped from her yard, it bounded
into a busy street. Although Carla does not generally
approve of physical discipline, she hit the puppy sharply
with her hand. Now the puppy enters the street only
when accompanied by Carla, so Carla was justified in
disciplining the puppy.
Which one of the following principles, if established,
would justify the judgments about GeorgeтАЩs and CarlaтАЩs
(A) When disciplining an animal physically, a trainer
should use an object such as a rolled up
newspaper to avoid making the animal
frightened of hands.
(B) When training an animal, physical discipline
should be used only when such discipline is
necessary to correct behavior that could result in
serious harm to the animal.
(C) Using physical discipline to train an animal is
justified only when all alternative strategies for
correcting undesirable behavior have failed.
(D) Physical discipline should not be used on
(E) Physical discipline should not be used by an
animal trainer except to correct persistent