According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers who reduced their nicotine intake from cigarettes, even by up to 50 percent, did not achieve significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back on cigarettes was not lower than that for heavier smokers; moreover, the rate of cardiovascular disease was similar across all subsets of smokers in the study. As a result, the sponsors of the study claim that reducing nicotine intake does not improve one's health.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?
)The majority of study participants minimized their nicotine withdrawal symptoms through the use of skin patches and chewing gum that provide nicotine to the body. ---> This is fine. From the excerpt, it's clear that the premise focuses on a specific source of nicotine intake
) and concludes that reducing nicotine intake does not improve one's health. This conclusion is wrong as it assumes that nicotine intake is possible ONLY through cigarettes
. Option A clearly shows that the study group compensated the reduction in nicotine intake (from cigarettes) through other sources (skin patches and chewing gum), which are rich in nicotine.2
) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted. ---> There are many gaps in this statement. The excerpt talks about those smokers (out of 50000 people) who reduced their nicotine intake. We don't know how many of them
periodically dined in restaurants. Moreover, even if smoking is allowed in those restaurants, we have no idea about the presence of any smoker during any of the study participant's visit
. So, discard this option. 3
)The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake. ---> It might strengthe
n the argument (...The mortality rate for those who cut back on cigarettes
was not lower than that for heavier smokers
; moreover, the rate of cardiovascular disease
was similar across all subsets
of smokers in the study...) or at best, it's inconclusive
)Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking. ---> Irrelevant. The study focuses on those who reduced the intake and not those who completely stopped taking nicotine.5
)Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study. ---> This info does not affect the argument in any way. The argument is only concerned about the group that was monitored.
Clearly, option 1
Hope that helps.
+++ Believe me, it doesn't take much of an effort to underline SC questions. Just try it out. +++
+++ Please tell me why other options are wrong. +++
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