Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple

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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2005, 04:46
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Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 16 Jul 2016, 20:09, edited 2 times in total.
OA updated
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2005, 16:54
i think it is C.

If this weren't true, one cannot for sure say that these were the staple crops in W. Af. and agricultural socites there formed at the same time as the arrival of these crops.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2005, 19:34
It is clearly C.
if Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the the W-african people, there would be no question of earliest arrival date of agricultural scocieties in W-africa.

nakib77 wrote:
Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.

nakib77 wrote:
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2005, 19:45
i like A better

C is not really an assumption, it is a stated fact by the following sentence:

All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams
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22 Oct 2005, 20:01
A has a point....... should change to A.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2005, 20:03
"Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops"
If per A, staple crops were already grown in W. Af, then why weren't the agricultural socities already formed?
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2005, 03:09
I pick (A).

We are talking about what staple crops were first grown in western Africa, not outside of western Africa, and so (C) is out.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2005, 06:50
nakib77 wrote:
Q40:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.

The answer must be B. Since the passage says that Rice and Yams are the staples that were introduced into Western Africa, crops domesticated prior to the introduction of Rice and Yam did not serve as staples. Otherwise Kole and Okra could have been the staples. B gives the assumption on which the passage builds.
If as A says that people stopped cultivating staples, then there would be no necessity for the people to adopt rice and yams as staples.
D is irrelevant.
E flows directly from the statement.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2005, 10:18
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Evidence 1: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops
Evidence 2: the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere
Evidence 3: Rice and yams were the first recorded staple crops.
Conclusion: If we discover when rice and yams rice and yams were introduced into western Africa we will be able to know when agricultural societies arose in Western Africa.

D and E are irrelevant. C is out of scope. Only A and B remain. If B is not true the argument is still valid. However A is necessary since if the had developped, then the agricultural period would have started before and the prediction of the author would be correct.
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23 Oct 2005, 13:04
Good job automan explaining it.
OA is indeed A.
Thanks.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2014, 23:33
can someone please explain the wordings of choice A?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

"did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating" very confusing.

thanks
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03 Jan 2014, 09:30
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Hi,

I can certainly try.

People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Here is A, with I think the 2 tricky bits in red.

It is sort of a double negative. So when you see something like that you need to take each section separately:

1) People in western Africa did not develop staple crops
- So people didn't do something

2) they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

- This is what they didn't do

With this split it becomes clearer.

They didn't stop growing something else prior to rice and yams being introduced.

In the context of the question, this is certainly an assumption. I.e. if they were growing something prior to rice and yams they could still have been an agricultural society.

James
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2014, 11:13
dear plumber 250.....

People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

1. how you deciphered the statement...is as follows...

They didn't stop growing something else prior to rice and yams being introduced.

2. however i was understanding it as follows...

They did not enhance/ further revive/ develop the staple crop that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.....

I appreciated that they were already cultivating something that they did not pursue after imported staple crops...

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 06:15
Hi Semwal,

I'm afraid I don't really understand your question.

But I can talk generally.

The key thing the passage is talking about is the TIMING of the change to an agricultural society.

The question is looking for an assumption that the evidence rests upon, regarding the introduction of foreign staples.

So, the only thing that matters is what are they assuming happened before the introduction. Then logically, it must be they didn't have other staples, that they then stopped growing.

Hence A.

I don;t understand your interpretation of A, as you seem to suggest it is talking about something happening after the arrival of the other crops. It is not, it is referring to the time before.

James
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 09:45
THANKS PLUMBER 250
PROBABLY I WAS READING/ UNDERSTANDING IT DIFFERENTLY......

THANKS
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 13:09
plumber250 wrote:
Hi,

I can certainly try.

People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

Here is A, with I think the 2 tricky bits in red.

It is sort of a double negative. So when you see something like that you need to take each section separately:

1) People in western Africa did not develop staple crops
- So people didn't do something

2) they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.

- This is what they didn't do

With this split it becomes clearer.

They didn't stop growing something else prior to rice and yams being introduced.

In the context of the question, this is certainly an assumption. I.e. if they were growing something prior to rice and yams they could still have been an agricultural society.

James
Does the 2nd part("that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced") really matter?
Shouldn't choice A with chopped-off content "People in western Africa did not develop staple crops" be enough as answer choice?
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Last edited by joshnsit on 08 Jan 2014, 13:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 13:16
nakib77 wrote:
Q40:
Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple crops. Several food plants, such as kola and okra, are known to have been domesticated in western Africa, but they are all supplemental, not staple, foods. All the recorded staple crops grown in western Africa were introduced from elsewhere, beginning, at some unknown date, with rice and yams. Therefore, discovering when rice and yams were introduced into western Africa would establish the earliest date at which agricultural societies could have arisen there.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. People in western Africa did not develop staple crops that they stopped cultivating once rice and yams were introduced.
B. There are no plants native to western Africa that, if domesticated, could serve as staple food crops.
C. Rice and yams were grown as staple crops by the earliest agricultural societies outside of western Africa.
D. Kola and okra are better suited to growing conditions in western Africa than domesticated rice and yams are.
E. Kola and okra were domesticated in western Africa before rice and yams were introduced there.
Guys, What is this Q40(as mentioned in the heading and the question, see highlighted above) of? Any idea what is the source?
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If you know what you're worth, then go out and get what you're worth. But you gotta be willing to take the hits, and not pointing fingers saying you ain't where you wanna be because of anybody! Cowards do that and You're better than that!
The path is long, but self-surrender makes it short; the way is difficult, but perfect trust makes it easy.

Fire the final bullet only when you are constantly hitting the Bull's eye, till then KEEP PRACTICING.
Failure establishes only this, that our determination to succeed was not strong enough.
Getting defeated is just a temporary notion, giving it up is what makes it permanent.

http://gmatclub.com/forum/1000-sc-notes-at-one-place-in-one-document-with-best-of-explanations-192961.html

Press +1 Kudos, if you think my post gave u a tiny tip.

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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2015, 09:19
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2015, 10:47
A it is..negation does the trick here
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Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2015, 22:56
Hi,
Can somebody explain why E is wrong?
If Kola and Okra wernt there at the time when rice and yams were introduced, then the agriculture society will not be formed. Please explain.
Thanks!
John
Re: Agricultural societies cannot exist without staple   [#permalink] 27 Oct 2015, 22:56

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