Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation

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01 Jul 2007, 08:21
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A similar SC has been discussed. But posting again as the answer choices are little different

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.

(A) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B) the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C) according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D) the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2012, 08:31
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hfbamafan wrote:
Question, I chose B mostly because I forgot to compare the proper construction in B, to E before I made my choice. My question is if runway was possessive would that make it correct?

Hi there,

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the
emergency landing was acceptable.

This sentence uses the verb-ed modifier "covered". So, what was covered? After reading the sentence we know that the runway was covered. Hence, the subject of the main clause should be runway so that the preceding verb-ed modifier "covered" can correctly modify it.

POE:

A. aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable. Incorrect. The sentence now suggests that "aviation officials" were covered in snow.

B. the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials. Incorrect. The sentence now suggests that "runway conditions" were covered in snow. PS @hfbamafan - Even if it were "runway's conditions", this choice would be wrong because the modifier "covered" would still be modifying the incorrect entity "runway's condition" and not the runway. It was "runway" that was covered in snow and not the "runway's conditions". We need "runway" as the subject of the main clause.

C. according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing. Incorrect. " the runway" should be placed right in the beginning of the sentence to avoid any ambiguity.

D. the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials. CORRECT.

E. aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable. Incorrect. The sentence now suggests that "aviation officials" were covered in snow.

1. The modifiers and the entities that they modify should be placed such so that the sentence conveys the logical intended meaning.

Hope this helps.

Thanks.
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20 Apr 2012, 00:21
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1. Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the
emergency landing was acceptable
.
• aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
• the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
• according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
• the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
• aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:23
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2. Discouraged by new data that show increases in toxic emissions from domestic factories, searches for alternative
investment opportunities are being conducted by shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies
.
• searches for alternative investment opportunities are being conducted by shareholders of the nation’s leading
manufacturing companies
• searches are being conducted by shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies who are looking
for alternative investment opportunities
• shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies had begun searching for investment opportunities
outside of the manufacturing industry
• the nation’s leading manufacturing companies are searching for alternative investment opportunities for its
shareholders
• shareholders of the nation’s leading manufacturing companies are searching for alternative investment opportunities

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

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12 Mar 2013, 04:19
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mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Only in D , the modifier is directly touching the noun. Hence D is the correct ans
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12 Mar 2013, 09:56
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Expert's post
hfiratozturk wrote:
Mike,
In your previous post, you mentioned that a sentence for example "Although covered in about 11 inches of snow" cannot be correct. Instead, it should be written for example "Although road is covered in about 11 inches of snow". Could you please explain how we used this structure (without subject) in this example?
Thanks,

Dear hfiratozturk,
First of all, understand that grammar is seldom as black & white as, say, mathematics. There are many more shades of grey.

I would say --- try not to worry about the parts of these practice sentences about which you don't get to choose. Sometimes, there will be less-than-perfect elements --- not out-and-out wrong, but simply less the perfect --- in the non-underlined part of the sentence. Wherever this particular structure appears in the underlined part of the sentence, at least in official material, it is always part of an incorrect answer; I believe this is a guideline you can follow. Remember that even a correct answer on a GMAT SC may not be ideal, only the best of the five answers. Remember, this is not math --- language is sloppy --- it's a living thing --- and the rules & guidelines of grammar & syntax abound in exceptions and shades of gray. If you are searching for axiomatic rules to follow dogmatically, you will be disappointed.

Does this make sense?

Mike
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:24
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3. Found in the wild only in Australia and New Guinea, powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from
other large mammals
.
• powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from other large mammals
• powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from other mammals that are large
• powerful back legs with long feet distinguish kangaroos from those of other mammals that are large
• kangaroos are distinguished from other large mammals by powerful legs with long feet
• kangaroos are being distinguished from other mammals that are large by powerful legs with long feet

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:24
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4. Hoping to alleviate some of the financial burdens of a growing population, property taxes last year were raised by
an eleven percent increase by the county government
.
• property taxes last year were raised by an eleven percent increase by the county government
• property taxes were raised by eleven percent last year by the county government
• the county government raised property taxes by an eleven percent increase last year
• the county government last year raised by eleven percent property taxes
• the county government raised property taxes by eleven percent last year

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

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Last edited by GetThisDone on 20 Apr 2012, 00:25, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:25
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5. Used until the end of the Second World War, the German army employed the U-boat to attack both military or
civilian watercraft.
• the German army employed the U-boat to attack both military or
• the U-boat was employed by the German army to attack both military and
• the U-boat employed the German army to attack both military or
• the German army had employed the U-Boat to attack both military and the
• the U-boat has been employed by the German army to attack both military and also

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

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08 Mar 2013, 13:31
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Expert's post
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Mun23:

I'm happy to help with this. This is a classic Modifier Touch Rule question. The modifier "covered in about 11 inches of snow", needs to touch the thing that was covered in snow --- not the "officials", not the "runway conditions" --- the word following the modifier has to be "runway", because the runway, and only the runway, is covered in snow. This only happens in (D).

Does this make sense?

Mike
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2012, 23:14
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hfbamafan wrote:
mohankumarbd wrote:
7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau contended that man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society,
that
compels man to compare himself to others.
• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that
• man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted only by society, that
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which
• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

I am assuming That is not supposed to be underlined

Thank you for correcting. i have updated the question now.
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12 Mar 2013, 02:47
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Mike,

In your previous post, you mentioned that a sentence for example "Although covered in about 11 inches of snow" cannot be correct. Instead, it should be written for example "Although road is covered in about 11 inches of snow". Could you please explain how we used this structure (without subject) in this example?

Thanks,
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12 Mar 2013, 10:59
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mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B)the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C)according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D)the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E)aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Mun23:

I'm happy to help with this. This is a classic Modifier Touch Rule question. The modifier "covered in about 11 inches of snow", needs to touch the thing that was covered in snow --- not the "officials", not the "runway conditions" --- the word following the modifier has to be "runway", because the runway, and only the runway, is covered in snow. This only happens in (D).

Does this make sense?

Mike

Hi Mike,

Is the wordy ("during the time of landing") vs concise("during the landing") qualify as a valid point for elimination of option C for someone who is stuck between C and D?

Thanks.
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12 Mar 2013, 12:32
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Expert's post
kapsycumm wrote:
mun23 wrote:
Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable.
(A) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
(B) the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
(C) according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
(D) the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
(E) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing were acceptable

Hi Mike,
Is the wordy ("during the time of landing") vs concise("during the landing") qualify as a valid point for elimination of option C for someone who is stuck between C and D?
Thanks.

Dear kapsycumm,
I would say "during the time of landing" is a little wordy --- it certainly would make me suspicious of that answer, although its conceivable that this could be part of a less-than-ideal correct answer if all the others were flat-out wrong. It's not B/W grounds for omission all by itself.

By contrast, the modifier issue I discussed above is a slam-dunk for omitting wrong answers. I'd say the much bigger problem with (C) is the awkwardly placement of the phrase "according to aviation officials" ---- what was "according" to them?? Here's what (C) has

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, according to aviation officials, the runway was ...

In this sentence, it sounds like we need the expertise of aviation officials to tell us that there are 11 inches of snow on the runway --- as if that were not a totally obvious fact to any snow-removal worker who happened to go out there with a shovel. In the sentence overall, the thing the aviation officials are making clear is not the amount of snow on the runway, but rather the condition of the runway. By placing this modifier in the wrong place, (C) gives a mistaken impression of what the aviation officials were telling us. That's the BIG problem with (C).

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: SC - Runway Condition [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2007, 21:46
iamba wrote:
A similar SC has been discussed. But posting again as the answer choices are little different

Although covered in about 11 inches of snow, aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable. A) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing was acceptable
B) the runway conditions during the emergency landing were acceptable according to aviation officials
C) according to aviation officials, the runway was in acceptable condition during the time of the emergency landing
D) the runway was in acceptable condition during the emergency landing, according to aviation officials
E) aviation officials said that conditions on the runway at the time of the emergency landing

D - correct modified 'runwa'.

C is closest but wordy.
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02 Jul 2007, 19:14
OA is D.

Don't you guys think that the phrase 'according to the officials' at the end of D is somewhat dangling?
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02 Jul 2007, 19:36
iamba wrote:
OA is D.

Don't you guys think that the phrase 'according to the officials' at the end of D is somewhat dangling?

It sounds awkward, but D is the only choice that correctly modifies runway. It's the lesser of the 5 evils.
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:26
6. Used until the end of the Second World War, the German army employed the U-boat to attack both military or
civilian watercraft.
• the German army employed the U-boat to attack both military or
• the U-boat was employed by the German army to attack both military and
• the U-boat employed the German army to attack both military or
• the German army had employed the U-Boat to attack both military and the
• the U-boat has been employed by the German army to attack both military and also

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:27
7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau contended that man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society,
that
compels man to compare himself to others.
• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, that
• man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted only by society, that
• only man is good when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which
• man is good only when in “the state of nature” but is corrupted by society, which

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

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Last edited by GetThisDone on 26 Apr 2012, 23:14, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 00:48

sc-new-questions-700-level-130947.html#p1076122
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Re: SC - Modifiers - 700 level   [#permalink] 20 Apr 2012, 00:48

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