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# Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2011, 02:36
Good question answer should be E
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-------Analyze why option A in SC wrong-------

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2011, 07:16
E
d) just says that asbestos is not the cause but doesn't support that sv40 virus is.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2011, 19:58
micr0c0sm wrote:
Asbestos is primary cause for mesothelioma.
SV40 is a contributor as a percentage of tissue was found with the virus in mesothelioma cases.
Some polio vaccine was contaminated with SV40.
Hypothesis: Vaccine was source of virus found in mesothelioma.

What supports the hypothesis?
A - Unrelated
B - Unrelated
C - Reiterates/restates that some vaccine was indeed conaminated, but doesn't help prove the vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas.
D - Reiterates/restates that although asbestos is a primary cause, SV40 is a contributor.
E - US had contamination, and subsequently, SV40. Finland had no contamination, and we hypothesize, no SV40 as a result. This helps our overall hypothesis that the contaminated vaccine was the source of the virus. This is the correct answer.

yes, C and D are RESTATE EVIDENCE, a typical trap for strengthening questions. pls, search this forum for more on this point.

if argument say that a cause creates an effect, the following situation will be a strengtheners.

-no cause, no effect
-cause creates an effect in another case.

The best part of the book CRITICAL REASONING BIBLE is CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP chapter. read it.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 08:08
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

I also got trapped in C.
It's a tough question.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 13:30
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 20:50
E for me:

1) May be So what . OOS
2) Ok true. But OOS
3) may be showing: but does that leads to cancer?? dont know
4) Small %: support very little
5) Strongly suports by taking a case study of finland.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2012, 07:00
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E for me..............

We want to prove that SV40 was cause and not the result of illness......
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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26 May 2012, 05:39
D is correct answer. It proves that when vaccine was not contaminated , samples from mesothelioma doesn’t contains virus SV40.
It implies that when In absence of Cause, There is no Effect either. Hence It is also a way to support/strengthen the conclusion.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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26 May 2012, 09:38
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

If you're deciding between (C) and (E) - you'll have to understand which one MORE strengthens the argument.

(C) provides a statement that supports an existing assumption. It supports the fact that there was contamination in 1960. However, it doesn't affect the link between the assumption and the argument.

You can think of it as:
--Argument
--Assumption
--Statement (C)

Where (C) supports the assumption - but the link between assumption and argument is not really strengthened. If any, it is strengthened slightly by a small amount since the assumption is stronger/more valid.

With (E), this is GMATPill's A vs Not A Framework.
The passage is making the argument that contamination in 1960 leads to the "hypothesis" vaccine was the source of the virus in mesothelioma years later.
The framework tells us that if we can establish a relationship for the opposite state leading to the opposite conclusion, then that relationship is good enough to establish support for our original assumption->argument.
So here, that opposite relationship is established.

In Finland where polio vaccination was NOT contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do NOT contain SV40.

If this is the opposite relationship that is established, the original relationship must be:
Where polio vaccination WAS contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas DID contain SV40 - which is what the passage is saying.

So since the opposite relationship is established in (E), we know our assumption->argument is supported.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2012, 02:52
a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores. - Irrelevant information - Incorrect
b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. - We are talking about the vaccines that have been contaminated rather than the technique of manufacturing or the present scenario of the vaccine - Irrelevant information - Incorrect
c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus. - It has already been mentioned in the premise that 1960 samples of vaccine have been contaminated by SV40 virus - Nither supports nor rejects - Incorrect
d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. - This takes a neutral stand and does not mention about SV40 virus in any case - Incorrect
e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. - Vaccine that was never contaminated with SV40 in Finland and it was found that mesotheliomas did not contain SV40. Hence it proves the hypothesis - Correct
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2012, 05:56
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

Good Question Tarek.. Thanks a lots....
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2013, 10:38
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tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?
(A) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.
(B) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
(C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
(D) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
(E) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

fameatop wrote:
I am not able to understand why option C is incorrect & E is correct. Can you kindly throw some light on the same. Waiting eagerly for your detailed explanation. Regards, Fame

Fame,
So, the argument presents, as evidence, the fact that "in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus." That's evidence, so for GMAT purposes, that's fact beyond dispute. Then it makes the argument, the hypothesis, that SV40 in the vaccine CAUSED the SV40 in the mesotheliomas. That's the actual argument we are trying to support, the link between the SV40 in the vaccine and the SV40 in the mesothelioma tissue.

Well, (C) merely strengthens the evidence. We already were told that there was SV40 virus in the polio vaccine. That's already beyond doubt. Statement (C) strengthens this statement that is already beyond doubt, but it doesn't say squat about the link to mesothelioma. The researchers were hypothesizing this link between SV40 virus in the vaccines and mesothelioma, and (C), while it verifies --- "yep, there sure was SV40 in that polio vaccine!" --- doesn't bring us any closer to a link with with mesothelioma. The argument is all about that link.

By contrast, (E) is very powerful. If the SV40 virus in the vaccines really is the source of the virus in the mesothelioma tissue, then if we found some case in which there was no SV40 virus in the vaccine, then we would expect to find no SV40 virus in the mesothelioma tissue. (E) provides this new and very cogent evidence. This is new, different from what was stated in the passage, although it provides strong support to the passage. In general, if I make the argument that P and only P causes Q, then part of what I am predicting is --- if there's no P, then there should be no Q. That would be very powerful evidence for this claim, and this is precisely the nature of the powerful evidence that (E) provides. That's why it's the best answer.

Does this make sense?

Mike
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2013, 01:08
tarek99 wrote:
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores.

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.

E,
Eliminated C on the assumption that vaccine can be contaminated from monkey virus later than 1960.
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2013, 05:10
I was torn between C and E. In the end I picked C because I thought it was reinforcing the argument.

However, after reading gmatnub' explanation, i see why E is the answer. Moreover, C seems to be re-instating the already given assumption that
"SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus" - Fact

C) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus - already stated above

I think strengthener answers should add new information or another angle to the arguement

E)
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2013, 17:09
Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratories.
- who cares...

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40.
- now prevents, shows nth about previous contamination

c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus.
- the question stem says " Researchers hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later. ". And the questions asks us to "support the researchers' hypothesis". This answer choice just fits

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos.
- A small percentage isn't representative

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40.
- uncontaminated vaccines does not contain SV40, doesnt support that contaminated ones DO contain SV40.

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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2013, 11:16
In the original question, the following are incorrect : caps, commas and full stop. I was misled and my answer is incorrect. Are caps, commas and full stop problems common? Or the question pasted here is incorrect?
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2013, 13:31
rajeshs wrote:
In the original question, the following are incorrect : caps, commas and full stop. I was misled and my answer is incorrect. Are caps, commas and full stop problems common? Or the question pasted here is incorrect?

Dear rajeshs,
I'm having a tremendous amount of difficulty understanding what you are asking. Please elaborate with quotes to demonstrate.
Mike
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2013, 04:22
Well guys I think the answer is C. Reason explained below

Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of mesothelioma, a slow-developing cancer, researches believe that infection by the SV40 virus is a contributing cause, since in the United States 60 percent of tissue samples from mesotheliomas, but none from healthy tissue, contain SV40. SV40 is a monkey virus; however, in 1960 some polio vaccine was contaminated with the virus. Reseaches hypothesize that this vaccine was the source of the virus found in mesotheliomas decades later.

the whole game here is of conclusion = " Vaccine was the source of virus found in mesotheliomas decades later. "
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the researchers' hypothesis?

a) SV40 is widely used as a research tool in cancer laboratores. - Irrelevant

b) Changes in the technique of manufacturing the vaccine now prevent contamination with SV40. " this could be a good answer in case the conclusion were about contamination in cause effect scene
c) Recently discovered samples of the vaccine dating from 1960 still show traces of the virus. - " Ask your self does it relate with the conclusion regardless of the degree of support it gives from 1%- 100%- Correct answer.

d) In a small percentage of cases of mesothelioma, there is no history of exposure to asbestos. no history of asbestos does not mean a history of Virus.

e) In Finland, where the polio vaccine was never contaminated, samples from mesotheliomas do not contain SV40. --it is irrelevant as it does not help us to prove that the Vaccine of 1960 was the source of Virus.

I hope it will help
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 10:05
sidpopy wrote:
Well guys I think the answer is C. Reason explained below

Sid,
With all due respect, the OA and best answer is (E). Please see my post from March 20th, above.
Mike
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Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 12:19
Dear Mike

thanks for reply. Now pl suggest me something.

Initially even i thought of the same answer what you have suggested, but further changed my decision when in conclusion I saw the word " this vaccine." I understood it as to find the support only for that particular 1906 contaminated vaccine as only responsible for the outbreak. Whereas your answer no effect no cause make me to understand conclusion as all vaccines are causing issue.

Pl suggest

Regards
Sid
Re: Although exposure to asbestos is the primary cause of   [#permalink] 02 Dec 2013, 12:19

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