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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of

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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 16 Apr 2012, 22:54
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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2012, 00:39
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shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Its D as the structure present in lab is different from the previous one and hence the conclusion is weakened
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2012, 01:52
what does the word previously means here ??
I thought it meant that the structure was not known earlier but now its known...
if i remove previously form option D it is clearly the answer.

Please clarify ...
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2012, 02:09
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shikhar wrote:
what does the word previously means here ??
I thought it meant that the structure was not known earlier but now its known...
if i remove previously form option D it is clearly the answer.

Please clarify ...


Basically the thing is :
F found in lab first then in nature, as they can be synthesized in lab argument concludes that okay it is possible to know something about the earth's state when these naturally occurring F were found. But what about if geologists dont know there structure prior to the point when discovery was made then its useless having F in lab. Because its no concrete source to make the conclusion.

Previously Unknown means before the discovery nothing about the structure is known. Hence if nothing is known till that point we cant say anything regarding the conclusion and hence conclusion stands is weakened.

Hope this helps..!!
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2012, 13:11
Hm I had guessed E, but I see why that's wrong, since the paragraph itself says that the synthesis requires distinctive conditions, hence it cannot be the answer.

D makes sense now.

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2012, 01:24
I also agree with the choice D, and the explanation of the guys above is enough for this question. Nice question. Thank all guys
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 May 2012, 03:44
shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Why can't the answer be B? The very fact that a meteorite also contained F implies that a similar meteorite could have collided with Earth and caused F to be inducted into Earth's crust artificially. So, studying this might not necessarily tell anything about Earth !!!
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 May 2012, 20:06
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I can't understand either of options (except C, but that with a long shot) weakening the conclusion.

Argument says : Because F could be formed in Lab in distinctive conditions (of temperature and pressure), We should be able to evaluate earth crust's conditions as well at the time of these Fs formed naturally. So, It's essentially assuming F can be formed in a specific set of conditions.

Let's evaluate Options :
A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
=> Not Related - No Impact

B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
=> Even if some were found in a small meteorite, it doesn't impact the argument. Because that small meteorite may also have similar conditions as Lab had when F were formed.

C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
=> This makes a little sense for me because it gives an alternative reason to believe why F formed naturally had something special (large amount of carbon) which may not be there in the lab. So we might be able to say those conditions in which F formed may not be same/ similar in Lab and earth-crust.

D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
=> Even if naturally occurring F are in crystalline structure unknown earlier, it is know now. And it doesn't give me any reason to say naturally occurring F would have different structure than the structure of Lab-formed F.
I can't understand how it would weaken the argument

E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
=> Already stated a s part of premise, so essentially it's strengthening the argument, not weakening.

I'd appreciate expert views on this.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 17 May 2012, 21:50
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paragkan wrote:
shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Why can't the answer be B? The very fact that a meteorite also contained F implies that a similar meteorite could have collided with Earth and caused F to be inducted into Earth's crust artificially. So, studying this might not necessarily tell anything about Earth !!!



paragkan,

You are right that B does weaken too. But between B and D - D is a better answer because it "most seriously" undermines the argument.
B weakens a little bit because if F is found on a small meteorite from outer space, it's possible that the F in shungite is not "natural" and actually came from outer space instead. If that is the case, then we can't get a good idea of the Earth's crust at the time of formation - because that formation happened in outer space. Thus, the argument isn't valid anymore.
BUT, we don't know for SURE whether the F in shungite came from outer space so we can't necessarily say the argument is not valid. It's just that it *might* be invalid if the F is coming from outer space.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 18 May 2012, 07:39
shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
Out of Scope
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
Out of Scope again
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
shungite is made entirely of carbon, nothing new here
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
left over choice, unknown crystalline structure != spherical molecules
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.

if this is the case, it helps the argument
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 05 Dec 2012, 07:38
in this question I want to discuss one important point. pls discuss with me

normally , I prethink an assumption for weaken/strengthen question.

prethink: author assume that there is only ONE condition which make the F. if there is 2 conditions we can not infer the condition on the earth.

go to answer choices, look for the information which said F can be made at 2 conditions.

I do not find this information. but though I can not find this information I can find the choice D easily because d said that there is 2 kinds of F.

dose my prethought assumption brings me closer to the correct choice D?

if I do not prethink, my accuracy is lower. if I prethink my accuacy is much higher though the prethinking is not exact.

experts, pls explain why prethink help me.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2013, 23:29
gmatpill wrote:
paragkan wrote:
shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Why can't the answer be B? The very fact that a meteorite also contained F implies that a similar meteorite could have collided with Earth and caused F to be inducted into Earth's crust artificially. So, studying this might not necessarily tell anything about Earth !!!



paragkan,

You are right that B does weaken too. But between B and D - D is a better answer because it "most seriously" undermines the argument.
B weakens a little bit because if F is found on a small meteorite from outer space, it's possible that the F in shungite is not "natural" and actually came from outer space instead. If that is the case, then we can't get a good idea of the Earth's crust at the time of formation - because that formation happened in outer space. Thus, the argument isn't valid anymore.
BUT, we don't know for SURE whether the F in shungite came from outer space so we can't necessarily say the argument is not valid. It's just that it *might* be invalid if the F is coming from outer space.


Hi,

Can you please let me know how you have eliminated C.

My reasoning was as the fullerness is formed directly from rock, unlike in lab so conditions might be different during formation.......
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 25 Mar 2013, 05:18
Hi,

Can you please let me know how you have eliminated C.

My reasoning was as the fullerness is formed directly from rock, unlike in lab so conditions might be different during formation.......[/quote]


C is wrong because it doesn't tell us anything about the conditions of the fullerine instead it focuses on the synthesis mineral in which it is found


I chose B simply because I was running out of time but D is a better answer.
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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 10 May 2013, 06:21
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions

Last edited by Zarrolou on 10 May 2013, 06:23, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 24 Jun 2013, 22:38
D is the straight answer.

Because

Fuller... is spherical shaped molecules made of carbon. If naturally discovered Fuller... is different from the artificial one, It is not the same substance that we are looking for in shungite
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 26 Jun 2013, 23:17
Although D looks close yet it is not definitive as it doesnt say the natural fullerene "the stucture of which is now known" is different or same as the lab fulleren.

Any help on this ??
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 27 Jun 2013, 00:31
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Although D looks close yet it is not definitive as it doesnt say the natural fullerene "the stucture of which is now known" is different or same as the lab fulleren.

Any help on this ??


Hi adg142000

I’m glad to help.

This question uses a very common flaw of reasoning:
Fact: X leads to A
Fact: Y leads to A
Conclusion: X = Y.
This is wrong. Same ending does not mean same beginning.

Back to the question.

Fact: fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory
Fact: fullerenes also have been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite.
Fact: laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure
Conclusion: We could know about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Assumption: the previous structure of fullereness formed in lab and that of fullererness formed in nature is the same.

What if scientists synthesize fullerness from substance X. But in nature fullerness was actually formed from substance Y ==> We cannot say the condition of the Earth’s crust at the time fullerness naturally formed is the same as the condition of lab at the time fullerness synthesized artificially.

What D says:

D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
D clearly says: we don't know what previous structure of fullererness formed naturally.
For example: The flow is: carbon 12 ==> carbon 14 ==> fullererness. Assume the lab synthesizes fullererness from carbon 12, but in nature, fullererness was formed from carbon 14 ==> cannot say the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed is the same as the condition in lab.

Hence, D weakens the conclusion and is correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 05 Jul 2013, 23:31
pqhai wrote:
adg142000 wrote:
Although D looks close yet it is not definitive as it doesnt say the natural fullerene "the stucture of which is now known" is different or same as the lab fulleren.

Any help on this ??


Hi adg142000

I’m glad to help.

This question uses a very common flaw of reasoning:
Fact: X leads to A
Fact: Y leads to A
Conclusion: X = Y.
This is wrong. Same ending does not mean same beginning.

Back to the question.

Fact: fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory
Fact: fullerenes also have been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite.
Fact: laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure
Conclusion: We could know about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Assumption: the previous structure of fullereness formed in lab and that of fullererness formed in nature is the same.

What if scientists synthesize fullerness from substance X. But in nature fullerness was actually formed from substance Y ==> We cannot say the condition of the Earth’s crust at the time fullerness naturally formed is the same as the condition of lab at the time fullerness synthesized artificially.

What D says:

D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
D clearly says: we don't know what previous structure of fullererness formed naturally.
For example: The flow is: carbon 12 ==> carbon 14 ==> fullererness. Assume the lab synthesizes fullererness from carbon 12, but in nature, fullererness was formed from carbon 14 ==> cannot say the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed is the same as the condition in lab.

Hence, D weakens the conclusion and is correct.

Hope it helps.


IT does not clarify anything?

Though I would believe and request others feeling so to affirm my choice and confirm that this is an unlikely question (aka Kaplan 800 and most choices and question facts are all indeendent facts than any assumtion, main uestion or in fact conclusion linking it to experiment for ABCXYZ
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 06 Jul 2013, 00:49
gchawla123 wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Premise: Laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure
conclusion: Naturally occurring fullerenes should help test the state of the earth's crust at the time these fullerenes were formed because of the distinctive conditions required at that time

Assumption: Naturally occurring fullerenes are similar to those synthesized in the lab.

However if as D says if the naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a structure that was not known when the author made the argument then what is hypothesized about natural fullerenes could not be correct. So the argument is undermined by D.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 06 Jul 2013, 01:17
Actually I think "previously unknown crystalline structure" means , a structure that was not known at the time the author made the argument. The knowledge about the structure at present exists. I have edited my previous post.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of   [#permalink] 06 Jul 2013, 01:17
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