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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of

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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 10:32
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Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature an pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

1. Confirming that the shungite genuinely containes fullerenes took careful experimentation.
2. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
3. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from wich the fullerenes apparentlu formed.
4. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
5. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.

Please explain.
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Re: Gmatprep CR - tough [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 15:02
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fullerenes - spherical molecules found in the laboratory
found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite
discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed

Assumption: the one that is found in lab is the same with the one in the nature

1. Confirming that the shungite genuinely containes fullerenes took careful experimentation. - not relevant
2. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft. - here the one in lab and the one in nature are compared
3. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from wich the fullerenes apparently formed. - not relevant
4. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure. - yah so it is different
5. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions. - does not mean the same

answer D
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Re: Gmatprep CR - tough [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 15:24
This is a weakening and so we should attack the conclusion of sentence.

First try to find conclusion and it is "laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature an pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed".
We can make inference that geologist think the shungite is found only in earth crust.

So to weaken this we should prove shungite is not found in earth crust.

1. Confirming that the shungite genuinely containes fullerenes took careful experimentation.
Doesn't weaken or support, only additional piece of information.

2. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
Quite interesting. We have other source of fullerenes. Keep it for time being.

3. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from wich the fullerenes apparentlu formed.
Already given that fullerness is made of carbon so this has to be true.

4. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
Fullernes may be found in previously unknown crystalline structure but how does that weaken Geologist claim of earth crust condition.

5. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
If this is the case, then geologist claim are all the more supported than weaken.

I will go with B.
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Re: Gmatprep CR - tough [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 16:35
Spot on. I know the OA is D - I got this one wrong the other day. I just couldn't crack through the technical jargon in this one. But your reasoning makes a lot of sense. +1.

AlbertNTN wrote:
fullerenes - spherical molecules found in the laboratory
found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite
discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed

Assumption: the one that is found in lab is the same with the one in the nature

1. Confirming that the shungite genuinely containes fullerenes took careful experimentation. - not relevant
2. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft. - here the one in lab and the one in nature are compared
3. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from wich the fullerenes apparently formed. - not relevant
4. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure. - yah so it is different
5. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions. - does not mean the same

answer D
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Re: Gmatprep CR - tough [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 19:55
I got D.
If its an unknown crystalline structure, you wouldnt know if its fullerene or not.
Hence, you wouldnt be able to evaluate the hypothesis, if you dont know what it is.
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Re: Gmatprep CR - tough [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 20:18
AlbertNTN wrote:
fullerenes - spherical molecules found in the laboratory
found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite
discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed

Assumption: the one that is found in lab is the same with the one in the nature

1. Confirming that the shungite genuinely containes fullerenes took careful experimentation. - not relevant
2. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft. - here the one in lab and the one in nature are compared
3. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from wich the fullerenes apparently formed. - not relevant
4. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure. - yah so it is different
5. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions. - does not mean the same

answer D


I admited that my application skill to the real is so bad. I do not recognize that is analogy flaw. Thank you. However, I recognize this is a causal flaw. Sometime I really confuse the one flaw with the other. Do you have a tip for this?
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Re: Gmatprep CR - tough [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2008, 21:41
nah my verbal is weak also. In this problem, i do not see kind of 'cause-effect' relationship, and mainly as i said the scope mentions only abt 2 things, the one in lab and the one in nature. Here they seem to be kind of 'parallel', not one thing leads to the other...anyway just move on... do more, haha shared the problems. Together we beat the Verbal =)) (i'm really worried abt my verbal)
Re: Gmatprep CR - tough   [#permalink] 12 Apr 2008, 21:41
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