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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of

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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink] New post 06 May 2009, 08:24
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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 06 May 2009, 09:13
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions




B

The argument says that fullerenes are made under special conditions in the lab, so the fullerenes in nature should provide clues about the conditions when the earths crust was formed. B gives an alternative and suggests that fullerenes could have come from outter space.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 06 May 2009, 09:22
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Very tough. I've gone throught the question 3 times, still dont know have a clue.

B & E are out
D - does not fit

confused between A & C...I'll go with C (dont ask me why)
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 06 May 2009, 10:12
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bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions





premise:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory

Premise: fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon- have since been found in nature, formed fissures of rare material shungite.

Premise : Laborate synthesis of fullerenes requires distictive conditins of temperature and pressure.

Conclusion:
Discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.


A) Not weakening the argument. one way it is supporting the argument.
B) Not relevant (Out of scope). This information is not useful in weaking argument. What even if fullerenes found in outerspace?
Is this effect conclusion???
C ) Not weakening.
E) Strenghten


D). naturally occurent fullerenes are previsously in unknown crystalline structure.
Laboratory fullurenes are in spherical structure.
Both have different strucutre--> conditions of temp and pressure require will be different for these two forms.

So It undermines argument.



Go with D.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 06 May 2009, 10:46
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x2suresh wrote:
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


x2suresh, you are correct answer is D, B is a trap

http://www.beatthegmat.com/gmatprep-cr- ... html#53842




premise:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory

Premise: fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon- have since been found in nature, formed fissures of rare material shungite.

Premise : Laborate synthesis of fullerenes requires distictive conditins of temperature and pressure.

Conclusion:
Discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.


A) Not weakening the argument. one way it is supporting the argument.
B) Not relevant (Out of scope). This information is not useful in weaking argument. What even if fullerenes found in outerspace?
Is this effect conclusion???
C ) Not weakening.
E) Strenghten


D). naturally occurent fullerenes are previsously in unknown crystalline structure.
Laboratory fullurenes are in spherical structure.
Both have different strucutre--> conditions of temp and pressure require will be different for these two forms.

So It undermines argument.



Go with D.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 14 May 2009, 06:39
OA is D. Good job.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 14 May 2009, 20:39
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bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Indeed tough.

My answer is D.

The argument is saying since the fullerenes are the same, they must have been made the same way.
And we know how to make them in the laboratory, so that's how they were made in nature.

D weakens this considerably by saying they're not the same.

Here's why the other answer choices are wrong.

A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
Fantastic. Who cares.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
This weakens it a bit. But D does much more so. It says 'some fullerenes', which isn't that strong of a statement. Perhaps the fullerenes were made in space, again a lot of 'what ifs'....
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
Fantastic. Who cares.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
Correct.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions[/quote]
Fantastic. Again who cares.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2010, 12:20
this is probably the toughest CR i've ever done.

I pictured the spherical molecules to be "embedded" into the crystalline structure... so BOTH "structures" are possible TOGETHER... in this case, D doesn't weaken the argument.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2010, 21:51
Nice one, good question!
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 16 Sep 2010, 03:45
Phew, Its a tough one!!
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 16 Sep 2010, 05:27
i think D
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 05 Jan 2011, 08:14
"in a previously unknown structure"? Does that mean we know the structure of the naturally occurring fulerrenes now? And are the structures the same? Why cant we compare? More explanation please, thanks.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 06 Jan 2011, 10:28
and what about E?
If the sunghite is formed only under distinctive conditions (different from those of the lab and therefore different from the Earth's crust).
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2011, 01:28
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


It is quite tough .. so obviously my attempt did not give favorable result, I chose E and It was totally guess as I didn't know why? I read 2 -3 times ..

I have read above mentioned explanations .. there are good reasons for all incorrect answers

For correct answer D I would emphasize on "spherical" vs "Crystal" . Each time I read the question, I did not realise in lab it was spherical .. while in environment it is crystal so two different types

So if we don't pick right key word , we cannot come to right answer
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2011, 04:17
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


I just can't correlate:
The passage states a fact that fullerenes, spherical molecules, are found in nature in shungite.
D states that naturally occurring fullerenes are not spherical but crystalline.
---------
Looks like D is targeting two facts stated in the passage.
1st fact-- it is spherical
2nd fact-- it's found in the nature
-----------------
If D is forcing me to draw a conclusion that the fullerenes found in shungite are not the naturally occurring fullerenes, but rather are man made fullerenes.
-------------------------

Not very convinced with D. At the same time, the other choices also do not fit well as a weakener.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2011, 04:21
@fluke, D is correct, check this :

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/alt ... -t912.html

fullerenes-and-shungite-80214.html
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2011, 04:34
subhashghosh wrote:


That's the problem subhashghosh; I know it's a gmatprep question AND is supposedly 100% correct. Yet, not very convincing for me.

Thanks for the link though.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 02:42
D is the only one causing a reasonable doubt on the utility of the molecules for the study.
D is clean.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 03:14
subhashghosh wrote:


My take on D;
It says "The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure"
which means the structure was unknown prior to discovery. hence what we were using in lab may /maynot be the right form and structure?
so may be the ones thats found now has doesnt require distinctive remparature and prssure condition.
hence weakens..
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 03:24
sudhir18n wrote:
subhashghosh wrote:


My take on D;
It says "The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure"
which means the structure was unknown prior to discovery. hence what we were using in lab may /maynot be the right form and structure?
so may be the ones thats found now has doesnt require distinctive remparature and prssure condition.
hence weakens..


I just have one complaint sudhir:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite.

This statement about fullerenes should have been presented in a different way.

Such as,
One type of fullernes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-
OR
scientists after analysis found that these molecules were spherical in structure.

But, it rather presented the information in this way
fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-

Thus, I am to believe that fullerenes will always have spherical structure.

Like saying
water-a substance who molecule contains 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom-

I will believe that All water will have the same structure. Now, someone tells me in Mars, water contains 2atoms of nitrogen and 2 helium. I will say, the earlier fact was not properly conveyed then.

When it is on earth, water -a substance who molecule contains 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom-

You see where my confusion is.
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Re: Tough GMATPREP: Fullerenes   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2011, 03:24
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