Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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02 May 2005, 14:18
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by doe007 on 17 Apr 2013, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
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03 May 2005, 06:42
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Folaa3 wrote:
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.

right. thats why it must be D), because we identify an assumption by the negation of it. C) is the negation of D). take D) and the conclusion falls apart. take C) the conclusion does not fall apart.
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24 Apr 2011, 22:15
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voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
Voodoo

As you said for most its a choice between C and D. I for one dont think it's a CE problem.
C limits the scope of assumption by using only controlled experiments and statistical tests to prove genuine science.These are just 2 of the many examples of scientific methods. In Powerscore(PS) language , its a Shell game answer.

D. Simple -- use negation test- PS Lang: A field of study that employs scientific methods is not a genuine scientific enterprise.. This weakens the conclusion and hence correct.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2013, 05:18
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Expert's post
ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.

How should one weigh for C and D??

Hi ratinarace,

The stimulus says - parapsychology is a scientific enterprise because it uses scientific methods.

Conclusion: Parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise

We are asked to find the assumption that the author is making. For assumption questions the correct option should present an information that must be true in order for conclusion to be valid.

Lets consider (C) first; it says Scientific enterprise that "does not" use scientific methods is not a genuine science.
But can we say that one that uses scientific method is a genuine science? no;

So, based on (C), if a field does not use scientific methods then we can say for sure that it is not a genuine science. But, if a field uses scientific method we can't say for sure that it is a genuine science. It may be or it may not be; our conclusion may not necessarily be true.

Now lets consider (D) - a field that uses scientific methods is a genuine science. The field of study in the stimulus - "parapsychology" does in fact use scientific methods. So, if (D) is true then the we can say for sure that "parapsychology" is a genuine science, thus, validating our conclusion.

While deciding between two assumption choices you have to determine a choice which "must be true" for the conclusion to be true.

Hope that helps,

Vercules
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25 Dec 2009, 13:04
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Thanks for sharing the concept, Atish!

@sagarsabnis
If you compare C & D in maths terms

scientific methods is a SuperSet of Set {controlled experiments,statistical tests}

If Set A= Set A1+Set A2+Set A3....

If Set A1=0, doesn't mean Set A=0
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2011, 14:17
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
Voodoo
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13 Jun 2011, 02:53
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siddhans wrote:
Can you please explain POE to solve this?Why iS D correct. on of the forums posts(http://www.aristotleprep.com/forum-topi ... ning/cr-44 Option E ) i read that X -> Y then if Y -> X it is incorrect since D states that... In the stimulus it is says " it is geniuine science (X) if its uses scienticic methods (Y) ....but the ans choice D says Any field of study that employs scientific
methods(Y) is a genuine scientific enterprise(X).

C should be the correct choice here not Y -> not X...i dont understand why it isnt?

To be honest even I for a minute thought its C. but I think its D.
the reason .. yout theory of X and Y is perfect but I guess the application is wrong..

This is what the stem says...
"Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods "

I can re write it as
Parapsychology ( any field of study), is a genuine scientific enterprise, for (parapsychology- any field of science) uses scientific methods

This what option D says...
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2012, 13:16
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Hi Roy,

Below is my analysis :-

Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
>> This cannot be the assumption on which the argument is based. If you negate this statement there will no impact on the argument.

b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
>> This is out of scope. Nothing is mentioned about the results or outcome. We are interested in whether any field of study will qualify for a genuine scientific enterprise category

c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
>> This is also out of scope.The argument is not concerned about enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests

d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
>> This indeed is the correct answer. If you negate this assumption then the argument will immediately break down

if any of study that employs scientific methods is NOT a genuine scientific enterprise then as per the argument the definition of "genuine scientific enterprise" itself is flawed and argument breaks. This has to be the assumption on which the argument stands.

e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
>> We are not concerned with the test of controlled experiments.

Its better to narrow down your choices and the apply the negation test on the stated assumption ,to check whether the argument will break of will have no impact
Hope this helps.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2012, 05:17
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roygush wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

so now i quickly elimnated a,b,e - not related to anything.

im now facing either C or D.
i wanted to check those using the negation technique from PowerScore CR Bible.

how should i negate C?
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS genuine science.
or maybe
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS NOT genuine science.
where should I add my own NOT?

D is easier:
any field of study that employs scientific methods is NOT genuine scientific enterprise.

the OA is D but i wasnt sure.
can anyone share light on this issue?

thanks,
Roy

I’m not 100% sure about this since I didn’t always use the negation technique but your negation of answer choice D is a polar opposite (any field of study…is → your negation: any field of study…is NOT). However, you should create the logical opposite; to do this, I would focus on “any” in C and D because in this context it works similar to “all”.
So, my suggestions would look something like this:

C: Not all enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are not genuine science.
This means at least one enterprise that does not use controlled experiments IS genuine science. This does not cause the argument to fall apart.

D. Not all fields of study that employ scientific methods are genuine scientific enterprises.
This means that there is at least one field of study that employs scientific methods and is nevertheless NOT a genuine scientific enterprise. So we cannot conclude that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise just because it uses scientific methods. (= argument falls apart, D is the correct answer)
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02 May 2005, 15:49
Fairly closely placed choices, but D is readily found in the text, in the same words. Unless I am missing something here, D is the choice.

Any other views?
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02 May 2005, 20:08
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parasychology is genuine scientific enterprise becoz it uses scientific methods.
=> Any field that uses scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
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03 May 2005, 05:54
B restates the original definition of parapsychology
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03 May 2005, 06:09
D)...the author of the arguments says that the parapsychology examines the questions it raises. thats why it operates these tests. so it is not stated that these tests produce credible results. so A) and B) are out. C) is the negation of D), showing why D) is right. E) is just wrong.
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03 May 2005, 06:39
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.
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24 Sep 2005, 18:01
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science
B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise
E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
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24 Sep 2005, 19:39
vikramm wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise

D. the highlighted portions above show that parapsychology is a genuin science.
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13 Mar 2008, 06:29
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology
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13 Mar 2008, 06:44
I will go with D.
Because passage states that "it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments" and D states that "Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise".
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14 Mar 2008, 02:58
In my opinion it is D.

The passage states "it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises"

The assumption here is that any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
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22 Dec 2009, 12:40
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it
uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to
examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible resu lts.
(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Now can any1 tell me whats the difference between C and D???

These CR's are becoming nightmare for me....pls help guys...
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,   [#permalink] 22 Dec 2009, 12:40

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