Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,

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02 May 2005, 14:18
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by doe007 on 17 Apr 2013, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
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02 May 2005, 15:49
Fairly closely placed choices, but D is readily found in the text, in the same words. Unless I am missing something here, D is the choice.

Any other views?
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02 May 2005, 20:08
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parasychology is genuine scientific enterprise becoz it uses scientific methods.
=> Any field that uses scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
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03 May 2005, 05:54
B restates the original definition of parapsychology
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03 May 2005, 06:09
D)...the author of the arguments says that the parapsychology examines the questions it raises. thats why it operates these tests. so it is not stated that these tests produce credible results. so A) and B) are out. C) is the negation of D), showing why D) is right. E) is just wrong.
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03 May 2005, 06:39
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.
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03 May 2005, 06:42
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Folaa3 wrote:
Using logic rules as stated in the sticky on this forum, there isn't any clear distinction between C and D.

If X then Y
Not Y, then not X.

I stand corrected on this.

right. thats why it must be D), because we identify an assumption by the negation of it. C) is the negation of D). take D) and the conclusion falls apart. take C) the conclusion does not fall apart.
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2005, 18:01
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science
B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise
E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
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24 Sep 2005, 19:39
vikramm wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise

D. the highlighted portions above show that parapsychology is a genuin science.
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13 Mar 2008, 06:29
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology
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13 Mar 2008, 06:44
I will go with D.
Because passage states that "it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments" and D states that "Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise".
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14 Mar 2008, 02:58
In my opinion it is D.

The passage states "it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises"

The assumption here is that any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
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22 Dec 2009, 12:40
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it
uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to
examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible resu lts.
(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Now can any1 tell me whats the difference between C and D???

These CR's are becoming nightmare for me....pls help guys...
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22 Dec 2009, 13:35
c) is of the form - if not x then not y
d) is of the form - if x then y.
The conclusion is of the form if x then y

Hence D is clearly the right answer.

Try looking at the CR sections of Princeton Review. It really helped me understand a tactical approach for CR question. Alternatively you can look at Kaplan (However I found PR better for CR concepts).
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Last edited by atish on 22 Dec 2009, 14:12, edited 1 time in total.
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25 Dec 2009, 13:04
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Thanks for sharing the concept, Atish!

@sagarsabnis
If you compare C & D in maths terms

scientific methods is a SuperSet of Set {controlled experiments,statistical tests}

If Set A= Set A1+Set A2+Set A3....

If Set A1=0, doesn't mean Set A=0
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24 Apr 2011, 14:17
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
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Re: Find the assumption..Need serious help...... [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2011, 22:15
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voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
Voodoo

As you said for most its a choice between C and D. I for one dont think it's a CE problem.
C limits the scope of assumption by using only controlled experiments and statistical tests to prove genuine science.These are just 2 of the many examples of scientific methods. In Powerscore(PS) language , its a Shell game answer.

D. Simple -- use negation test- PS Lang: A field of study that employs scientific methods is not a genuine scientific enterprise.. This weakens the conclusion and hence correct.
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24 Apr 2011, 23:08
voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science. Misses the point.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results. Out of scope.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science. Negate this and the conclusion is supported.Hence a an opposite answer. POE.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise. Using negation the conclusion fails. Hence OA

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments. Falsifies the premise if negated.Hence, POE.

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
Voodoo
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25 Apr 2011, 02:29
this is fairly simple . confusion between C and D may arise, but the assumption is clear. if an enterprise uses scientific methods , it is science.
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25 Apr 2011, 04:36
sudhir18n wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Thanks
Voodoo

As you said for most its a choice between C and D. I for one dont think it's a CE problem.
C limits the scope of assumption by using only controlled experiments and statistical tests to prove genuine science.These are just 2 of the many examples of scientific methods. In Powerscore(PS) language , its a Shell game answer.

D. Simple -- use negation test- PS Lang: A field of study that employs scientific methods is not a genuine scientific enterprise.. This weakens the conclusion and hence correct.

Question - how do you know that this is not a CE ? The PS says that when the sentence starts with For, because, caused by etc. it's CE. for it uses scientific
Re: Find the assumption..Need serious help......   [#permalink] 25 Apr 2011, 04:36

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