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Although some officials noted that using machines for

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95.Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Abhishek009 on 22 Sep 2016, 07:18, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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Thedevils88 wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks


I`m stronger on quant than I am on verbal, but see my comments in red below for my take on it. (B) is the only sentence that does not require correction.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut to half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while it cut in half the previous year’s costs (bad sentence structure)
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half those of the previous year

Another note is that "as" creates dependency. The cost is not dependent on the yield, it is dependent on the mechanization of farming.
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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Thedevils88 wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks


Hi Thedevils88,

For the sake of understanding lets remove the prepositional phrases.

Although some officials noted that using machines costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the [u]mechanization doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.

(A) mechanization doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half

The meaning implied in this sentence is incorrect. "while the previous year's costs were cut in half" means that the previous year's costs were cut in half but, no comparison is made to this year's costs. This meaning is clearly expressed in (B). It is not clear that which year's costs is the sentence talking about. Moreover, "cut to half" would be better than "cut in half"

(B) mechanization doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year

Expresses a clear comparison and correctly and concisely.

(C) mechanization doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s

In this choice as well, the meaning implied in incorrect. This choice means that "mechanization" was a result of costs being cut in half. However, the meaning of the sentence should be the opposite.

(D) mechanization doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs

unambiguous "it". "it" could refer to either "mechanization" or "corn yield"

(E) mechanization doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

The use of "while" distorts the meaning. This choice incorrectly states that "cutting of costs" was not because of "mechanization" but "cut to half" just like that.

eg John went to Cornell, while Mary went to Yale.


Hope it helps,

Vercules
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2013, 06:49
CarlMtl wrote:
Thedevils88 wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks


I`m stronger on quant than I am on verbal, but see my comments in red below for my take on it. (B) is the only sentence that does not require correction.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut to half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while it cut in half the previous year’s costs (bad sentence structure)
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half those of the previous year

Another note is that "as" creates dependency. The cost is not dependent on the yield, it is dependent on the mechanization of farming.


kudos for that! Could you also explain something else to me please? I know that 'mechanization of farming ...' is a complete sentence and it is connected the subordinate clause 'while cutting costs...'. What I want to know is what kind of phrase 'cutting costs...' is? Do I just take it for fact that it is just a correct way to say what it was intended in English? Thanks!
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2013, 07:24
A) This choice is incorrect for the same reason cited in Choice E

B) Correct and concise choice.

C) S-V disagreement cost …were. This choice also wrong because it changes intended meaning. We know there are two consequences of mechanization 1. it doubled the corn yield. 2. cut the costs to half. Wrong use of as changes the intended meaning and implies that mechanization doubled the corn yield because decrease in costs, while the intended meaning is mechanization doubled corn yield without increase in costs.

D) This choice is also wrong for the same reasons cited in Choice C

E) Here is parallelism error. Two consequences of single action should be in a form x has done y while doing z. The passive structure costs were cut…. is not parallel to doubled the corn yield. In this choice costs……that of is also wrong. It should be costs ....those of.

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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2016, 09:14
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In the above question , Choice E
"farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year"
Although choice E is wrong for other reasons, my particular doubt is in costs were cut to half that of the previous year
can "that" be used to refer to a noun plural?will it be considered right?
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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goforgmat wrote:
chetan2u
sayantanc2k

In the above question , Choice E
"farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year"
Although choice E is wrong for other reasons, my particular doubt is in costs were cut to half that of the previous year
can "that" be used to refer to a noun plural?will it be considered right?


:-D I too had this query for a long time. Finally I discovered numerous instances in OG13 itself where "that" has been used to refer to plural antecedent. Therefore, we can safely say that in GMAT, "that" can refer to plural antecedent.
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2016, 06:19
please someone, re-format the sentence. it hurts the eyes to see the whole underlined sentence, then to look for the part that you need to change...
Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2016, 06:19
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