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Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth

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Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 00:44
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Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898


Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898

Although not published until December, 1898, in the summer of 1898 physicists Marie and Pierre Curie observed the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified

Although observed by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie in the summer of 1898, the discovery of the first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, had not been published before December, 1898

The first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

The first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, was not published until December, 1898, while it was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie


What's wrong with C?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 02:19
CONFUSED C IS DIFFICULT CHIOCE
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 07:15
Financier wrote:
heyholetsgo wrote:

(D) Although observed by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie in the summer of 1898, the discovery of the first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, had not been published before December, 1898

What's wrong with C?


What's wrong about that? Is "the discovery" too far away from observed.
Also, why do they not use past perfect in D to indicate that one event was before the other?
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 07:28
C is wrong because it has a misplaced modifier "Although observed by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie in the summer of 1898, the discovery of the first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, had not been published before December, 1898"

C suggests that the physicists observed the discovery. Is it? NO. they discovered it
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 07:47
OK thanks. The OA said something about "although" must be followed by a sentence with a subject in it. Is that right?

And what about the time? Why can't we use past perfect?
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 09:23
I was stuck between D and E. Can someone explain why E is incorrect?
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 12:34
The first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, was not published until December, 1898, while it was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie.

I n E, it was not the atom of radium that was not published, it is the discovery. Modifier problem. The use "While" is illogical to show the contrast. While means two events are occuring simultaneously, which is not the case here.
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 15:00
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+1 D :)

E changes the meaning of the sentence. In that option, they tell you that the atom of radium was published. That's wrong!
C also changes the meaning. In that option, they tell you that the discovery was observed. But that's wrong. The atom was observed.

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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 19:50
heyholetsgo wrote:

Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898


Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898

Although not published until December, 1898, in the summer of 1898 physicists Marie and Pierre Curie observed the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified

Although observed by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie in the summer of 1898, the discovery of the first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, had not been published before December, 1898

The first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

The first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, was not published until December, 1898, while it was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie


What's wrong with C?


Right answer-d.
In c use of past perfect make no sense.
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 20:37
Very similar Question from GMAT Prep,

first-pulsar-89791.html?hilit=pulsar#p765827
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 21:37
+1 D. C is incorrect because it uses the wrong tense of "had" suggesting that another action took place prior to another action.
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 22:33
I have modified option D to form 3 more options... Do these seem correct?

The first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified had been observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified had been observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 19 Aug 2010, 02:36
I know we use Past Perfect when one action occurs before the other. But in this case there are 2 actions that are definitely not parallel (the discovery and the publication). So why not past perfect.
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 19 Aug 2010, 02:48
Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898

in the above statement , is "Although the first atom of radium" a correct usage?
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 19 Aug 2010, 04:36
IMO D :) +1
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Re: Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth [#permalink] New post 22 Jul 2012, 09:03
Strike 1 => Meaning => discovery published not first atom => abe out
Strike 2 => Although sports contradiction but 1898 discovered and published => C out
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Re: Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2012, 05:01
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Here, a basic principle of grammar will see you through than confuse with various other factors like meaning. When you have events that are quite clear about their timelines and sequence, then avoid using past participle, even though one might have happened earlier than the other occurred. For both the events, it is grammatically acceptable to use simple past.

As per this tenet, you can see Choice D and E survive but E does not merit any look since it says that the atom was not published rather than the identification or the discovery. D is the pick.
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Re: Radium [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2012, 06:13
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tingle15 wrote:
I have modified option D to form 3 more options... Do these seem correct?

The first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified had been observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified had been observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898


Hi @Tingle15,
Let’s analyze the three variations that you have presented for Choice D:

1. The first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified had been observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898

ANALYSIS: The usage of past perfect tense is correct here because this sentence is talking about two events and both the events took place in the past. So for sequencing, we past perfect tense has been used.
However, notice that we have clear markers in this sentence that tells us which action took place earlier and
which action took place later. The first atom of radium was observed in the summer of 1898 but the discovery was published only in December 1898. It is clear that summer comes before December. So the sentence clearly says that the atom was observed first and the discovery was published later. So in this case, use of past perfect tense is optional. We can use simple past tense for both the actions.

2. Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898.

ANALYSIS: This sentence is not correct because we cannot use “although” and “but” together is a sentence. Both these words present contrast. Hence we must use any one to express the intended contrast.

3. Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified had been observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898.

ANALYSIS: Again, the use of verb tense is correct here, but use of “but” is not correct.

TAKE AWAY:
1. When we have clear markers to show which event took place earlier and which event took place later, use of past perfect tense becomes optional.
2. Both "although" and "but" cannot be used in a sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2012, 07:42
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Hi All,

Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898.

As usual, let us begin by understanding the meaning of the sentence. The sentence says that physicists Marie and Pierre Curie observed the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth’s metal, in the summer of 1898. But their discovery was published only in December of the same year.

Error Analysis:
1. Pronoun “it” has no antecedent. Logically, the discovery was not published until December 1898. “it” cannot refer to the action of the observation of the atom.
2. The action of publishing took place later. The sentence incorrectly uses past perfect tense for the action that took place later.

POE:

A. Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, it had not been published until December, 1898.: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. Although not published until December, 1898, in the summer of 1898 physicists Marie and Pierre Curie observed the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified.: Incorrect. The opening modifier “Although not published” refer to the subject of the following main clause “physicists Marie and Pierre Curie”. This is incorrect modification.

C. Although observed by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie in the summer of 1898, the discovery of the first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, had not been published before December, 1898. Incorrect.
a. The opening modifier “Although observed” modifies the subject of the following main clause “the discovery”. This is incorrect modification.
b. Past perfect tense has been incorrectly used for later event.

D. The first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, to be identified was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie, but the discovery was not published until December, 1898: Correct answer.

E. The first identified atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth metals, was not published until December, 1898, while it was observed in the summer of 1898 by physicists Marie and Pierre Curie. Incorrect. This choice distorts the meaning of the sentence in more than one way.
a. Notice that “to be identified” has been changed to “identified”. These two expressions do not have the same meaning. “to be identified” denotes an action that was to be done on the atom while “identified” is an adjective that modifies “atom”.
b. The sentence says that “the first identified atom” was published and not the discovery of the atom. This is incorrect.

Image

1. Past perfect tense is used for earlier events that took in the past.
2. When there are clear markers that say clearly which event took place earlier and which event took place later, use of past perfect tense for the earlier event becomes optional.
3. The modifiers must modify correct entities to communicate the logical meaning.
4. Pronouns must have a clear noun antecedent.
5. Be wary of any change in the structure of a word or words. Such changes alter the meaning of the word.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Although the first atom of radium, the heaviest of the earth   [#permalink] 24 Jul 2012, 07:42
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