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# Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American

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23 Aug 2011, 21:09
what does "it" refer to in D and E?

seems like the word does not have an antecedent and is in poor form.
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24 Aug 2011, 04:20
'It' refers to act of studying, it is an expletive form, just as - 'There is a chance that i will get 700+'. I dont see necessity of past continuous tense, since nothing is being continued from past. The poets are beginning to study after some gap of time, hence D. Any thoughts?
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22 Sep 2011, 08:23
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until almost and almost until have different meaning.
I will not eliminate a choice right away because it has almost until 1900
Almost until 1900: Here almost actually modifies 'until 1900', is the meaning correct? NO!
Until almost 1900: Here, almost modifies 1900. correct meaning.
Note that similar words whose placement changes meaning on gmat choices are only, and, etc. Be careful while reading choices. these errors seem subtle but make a sentence non-sensical.
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22 Sep 2011, 08:35
folks, past perfect tense needs a reference. if atleast one verb in a sentence has past perfect tense, atlease one other verb must have simple past tense. past perfect works only with a reference.
As the two tense in the non-underlined part are in past perfect, atlease one tense in underlined part must be simple past tense.

A - correct tense, simple past, the comma after first modifier makes it ambiguous. what is it refering to?
B - past perfect, incorrect
C - were .. to begin - awkward, inversion, incorrect
D - correct tense, incorrect placement of almost
E - correct tense, correct choice
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Re: OG 12 SC 3 [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2011, 10:30
IMHO, in all answer choices the problem is in this -begin seriously to study. the word seriously cant be between begin and study
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Re: OG 12 SC 3 [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 00:07
Between D and E, E does not change the modifiers
I went with E.
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29 Dec 2011, 17:50
alicegmat wrote:
folks, past perfect tense needs a reference. if atleast one verb in a sentence has past perfect tense, atlease one other verb must have simple past tense. past perfect works only with a reference.
As the two tense in the non-underlined part are in past perfect, atlease one tense in underlined part must be simple past tense.

A - correct tense, simple past, the comma after first modifier makes it ambiguous. what is it refering to?
B - past perfect, incorrect
C - were .. to begin - awkward, inversion, incorrect
D - correct tense, incorrect placement of almost
E - correct tense, correct choice

I have a question on choice A. If the prepositional phrase "until almost 1900" was modifying the previous clause, then there would not be a comma before it. The fact that there is a comma should indicate that it is modifying the phrase after it.

In mgmat it mentions: a prepositional phrase modifying a verb (and possibly its subject) should not have a comma if it appears after the verb. If it is before the verb, then a comma appears.

Also on the pronoun "it" in D and E, is that modifying the time period starting with "when"?
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2012, 19:31
The answer is E in this case:

The position of the modifier "until almost 1900" is very confusing and I'm not sure what it is supposed to modify. Therefore, A is incorrect.

When I read answer choice B the first time, I initially thought that 1900 referred to the number of scholars and critics, so this was already confusing to me. The second problem I noticed was that it also uses past perfect tense, which is incorrect.

The use of infinitives is repetitive and confusing "to begin" and seriously "to study". I took out choice C because this seemed very wordy.

The only fault I could find in choice D was the modifier "not almost until 1900" which didn't make any sense to me.

Once I saw answer choice E, I knew that this was a better answer than D. So, I picked E as my final answer.
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30 Apr 2012, 17:55
sgupta0827 wrote:
I completely agree with Daagh about the issue of "seriously" in option D, although I am still not sure if "that" is correct in E. But I think "that" in E is not as bad as "seriously" in D.

@rphardu The reason why A is not correct is that In A, modifier ",until almost 1900," is sandwiched between two sentences and it's not clear from the sentence whether it is modifying the sentence before or after it, so A can not be correct.

i thought that "when" must be the relative pronoun of choice when modifying time periods. or "in which". Answer choice E contradicts that, but it is an OA.

so, is the takeway that "when vs. that" when used as a relative pronoun modifying a time period is not a hard requirement? So if there are other more egregious mistakes like "almost until 1900", or split infinitive, we disregard it?

thanks
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Re: Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2012, 18:09
After the phrase "Native American forms in their own works," it should be followed by word "it" so only D and E are close. Here until almost 1900 is the correct form. So here the correct answer is E
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Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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06 May 2012, 10:52
sravanth wrote:
Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages.

(A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study
(B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying
(C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study
(D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study
(E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

It was not until almost 1900 is the correct construction. hence E.
Also begin and begun are incorrect in this context.
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07 May 2012, 11:46
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Hi All,
Click on the following link to view the detailed solution of this OG question. The audio-visual solution is also available there:
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=552

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2012, 02:23
Why B is wrong?
past perfect is used to show an action which happen before another action in the past and continue into the that action. B is right.

pls, explain.

I do not see this point in the gmat grammar book by gmatclub. pls, explain, I miss something.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2012, 18:56
thangvietnam wrote:
Why B is wrong?
past perfect is used to show an action which happen before another action in the past and continue into the that action. B is right.

pls, explain.

I do not see this point in the gmat grammar book by gmatclub. pls, explain, I miss something.

Hi,
Actually IMO, if we look into the option B ("until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying"), the past perfect tense "had not" makes it incorrect. As other folks said that there must be a past reference point in the sentence, inorder to logically/gramatically interrelate the sequence of events using past perfect tense.
Hence, if the sentence was some thing like "until almost 1900 scholars and critics did not begin seriously studying" i would have been grammatically correct.

By the way, past perfect tense is used to describe an action that was completed before another past action, not necessarily continuing into that very action!
Correct me if i'm wrong.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2012, 20:05
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Click on the blog post below to see a very thorough analysis by Payal. She also has a video response. Don't forget the free Strategy Session this Saturday.

http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=552

Regards,

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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2012, 11:28
yes,
while past perfect continuous show an past action which go in the the other past action, past perfect shows an action which finished before the other past action. This point is make in the gmat grammar book not clearly.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 10:16
• I got this from a certain source. Whenever we use the past perfect, we must also have another verb in the sentence that is in the simple past.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 11:19
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lotus wrote:
B is the answer. not until almost is incorrect so C D E are out, seriously to study in A is incorrect

Hi there,

This is a question from OG 12 and the official answer to this question is E. To know why choice E is the ocrrect answer and what are the errors in the other answer choices, please click on the following link. We also have a detailed video solution for this question.
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=552

Let us know if you have any doubt pertaining to this question.

Thanks.
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Re: Although various eighteenth and nineteenth-century American [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2012, 01:09
an action began before and continue into a past point of time is presented by past perfect (not progressive at the past point of time- use past perfect continuous in this case. this case is not tested on gmat)

we can remember the following case.

"NOT UNTIL +PAST POINT OF TIME" MUST GOES WITH PAST PERFECT

this case is rather constant, so I thinh we should remember the case.

pls, comment.
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01 Sep 2012, 04:11
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Dear Friends
Kindly help me through this OG question

Q: Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native
American forms in their own works, it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying traditional Native American poetry in native
languages.

This is a question from official guide 12th edition. I have written the correct sentence. Please elaborate the usage of pronoun"it" at the beginning of second clause. What is it referring to here?
Usage of pronoun "it"   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2012, 04:11

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