Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely

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06 Sep 2009, 08:55
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Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I choose "C" but it is incorrect please explain the correct answer
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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06 Sep 2009, 09:06
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Hi,
here 'that impose' is better than 'imposing' as 'that' relates to the word immediately preceding it
therefore A and B are out....

now there are 3 activities

a)impose stricter limits on medical services
b) require doctors to see more patients, and
c)spend less time with each.
in these a and b are independent and c is dependent on b....

C makes all a ,b ,c independent...... E makes b and c dependent on a..
only D makes a and b independent and c dependent on b.. therefore D is the ans...
hope i have been of some help..

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24 Sep 2010, 07:42
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(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Spending less time with each is a modifying clause that modifies doctors.
If we use and spend/spending above meaning is lost, and the sentence assumes the below form:-
1.Investment plans impose stricter limits on medical services
2.Investment plans require doctors to see more patients
3.Investment plans spend less time with each. completely nonsensical.
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08 May 2012, 07:09
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Hi All,

Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than non-union members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans. Now these plans do things:
a. they impose stricter limits on medical services, and
b. they require doctors to see more patients.
Now if the doctors are required to see more patients, then they will spend less time with each patient.

Error Analysis:

1. The modifiers “imposing” and “requiring” correctly modify “lower-end insurance plans”, and they are parallel as well. However, “spend less time” fails to show that this action is the effect of doctors seeing more patients per the plans.
2. The only way to show this effect is by turning verb “spend” into verb-ing modifier “spending” to actually show the outcome.
3. This change alone however will not solve the problem because when we have comma + verb-ing modifier, it modifies the preceding clause. With the original sentence structure, the only clause we have is “union members are less likely…”. This is certainly the wrong modification.
4. Hence we need to change verb-ing modifiers “imposing” and “requiring” to “that” clauses so that maintain the parallelism as well as “spending” can correctly modify the “that” clause that talks about the doctors required to see more patients.

POE:

Choice A: imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

Choice B: imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending: Incorrect. Turning verb “spend” into verb-ing modifier “spending” now makes it parallel with “imposing” and “requiring”. The sentence now means that the new plans will spend less time with each patient. This is not logical.

Choice C: that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend: Incorrect. This choice repeats the same error by making “impose”, “require”, and “spend” parallel.

Choice D: that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending: Correct. The verbs "impose” and “requires” are parallel with the use of “that” clause that correctly shows what the new plans do. Verb-ing modifier “spending” now correctly modifies the preceding action "required to see", correctly showing the effect of the preceding action. The thing to note about the usage of comma + verb-ing modifier is that generally we say that this modifier modifies the preceding clause. But actually this modifier modifies the preceding action. This action may not necessarily be the verb of the preceding clause. It can be an action denoted by the "to verb" phrase. But because generally, a comma _ modifier appears after a clause, we say that it modifies the preceding clause.

In this answer choice, "spending" actually modifies the preceding action "to see" by presenting the result of this action. If doctors are required to see more patients, they will have to spend less time with each to accommodate more patients, Also, "spending" makes sense with the doer of the action denoted by "to see" that is "doctors" as the doctors will spend less time with each patient in order to see more patients.

Choice E: that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending: Incorrect. By making “requiring” and “spending” parallel, the sentence now suggests that these two are the effects of imposing the stricter limits on medical services. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence.

pavanpuneet wrote:
"So, let's start with: what are they modifiying? Nouns or clauses? Something, someone, or some clause is "imposing limits" and "requiring doctors" - what is it? It's the "insurance plans." That's a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not noun modifiers. Eliminate A. Scan the answer. Eliminate B for repeating the error. "

Can some throw some light on the following concept?

-ing form goes gor adverbial clauses and not noun modifiers... I am confused at this statement, for example, working hard all the times, Joe achieved his goal, ....working...modifies noun...isnt it?

can someone explain me may in lay man terms when to use ing form and when to use that form

Hi there,
Use of any kind of modifier is completely governed by the context of the sentence. I personally do not like to give out rules but to make it simple for you, I can suggest that use comma + verb-ing modifiers to give additional information or show the results or effects of the preceding clause.

When you need to modify a noun entity, you can either use just the verb-ing modifier or the “that” clause immediately after that noun entity.

When you have a situation like this sentence where we have two modifiers, then use “that” clause to modify the noun entity and use comma + verb-ing modifier to show the effect of the preceding clause.

In this sentence, we could only ascertain where to use which modifier only after we understood the meaning of the sentence. Hence, the key to determine the use of various modifiers is to first understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence and then decide which modifier to use depending upon the roles these modifiers play. So this means that you must have the knowledge of the roles played by various modifiers.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Last edited by egmat on 04 Jan 2016, 14:59, edited 3 times in total.
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16 Oct 2010, 05:46
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hey guys,

nice debate over this stuff.

This is GMATprepr SC and OA is D.

Look at the explanation by Stacey Koprince, Manhattan GMAT instructor, who scored 780.

Among <big group>, <sub-group A> are less likely than <sub-group B> to X.

In the original sentence, X is a very complex clause with two sets of compound modifiers:
to be enrolled in <Y> imposing <modifier1> and requiring<modifier1> [to see <modifier 2> and spend <modifier2>]

The first set of modifiers modifies something before "imposing"; in addition, the "imposing" and "requiring" parts are parallel. The second set modifies something before "to see"; in addition, the "see" and "spend" parts are parallel.

So, let's start with: what are they modifiying? Nouns or clauses? Something, someone, or some clause is "imposing limits" and "requiring doctors" - what is it? It's the "insurance plans." That's a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not noun modifiers. Eliminate A. Scan the answer. Eliminate B for repeating the error.

You could also have started with the second set: what do they modify? They modify "doctors" and parallelism dictates that we read it as "require doctors to see more" and "<require doctors to> spend less time." The plan actually requires doctors to spend less time with patients? That meaning seems... off. More logically, spending less time would seem to be a consequence of having to see more patients in the first place.

C, D, and E all start with "that." "That" is an indicator of a noun modifier, so that's good. Let's check parallelism next, since we know compound modifiers need to be parallel. This is where it can get a little messy, because we also have "nested" modifiers. So go back and pick apart that meaning:

For simplicity, I'll just type one form of each relevant word. We've got: impose, require, see, spend. Should they all be parallel? Are only some parallel to others? What is each one talking about? Let's see.

The "insurance plans" both impose limits and require doctors, so those two should be parallel. Do the plans see more patients? Nope - the plan requires the doctors to see more patients. Do the plans spend less time with the patients? No - that's also the doctors. Do the plans require doctors to spend less time with patients? I hope not! The "spending less time" thing is a consequence of the previous requirement (having to see more patients).

C says: impose, require, and spend. This says that "insurance plans that impose limits, <insurance plans that> require doctors to see more patients, and <insurance plans that> spend less time with each. That last one has a nonsensical meaning - eliminate.
D says impose and require, spending. This says that "insurance plans that impose limits and <insurance plans that> require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each." The ", spending" set-up indicates an adverbial modifier. Why are they spending less time with each? Not because they are doctors (noun) or because of the patients (noun), but because the doctors are required to see more patients (clause). Adverbial modifiers modify clauses. So this works.
E says impose, requiring and spending. This says "insurance plans that impose limits, requiring doctors to see more and spending less time with each." The ", requiring... and spending" pieces indicate a compoun adverbial modifier, so the fact that the plans impose limits should result in (a) doctors seeing more patients, and (b) someone (unclear who) spending less time with each. Are the doctors spending less time with the patients? Technically, (a) and (b) should be able to stand completely alone. If I strip out (a), I'm left with "insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, spending less time with each." Who's actually spending less time? I don't know. Meaning is ambiguous - eliminate.
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24 Sep 2010, 10:21
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Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

This question is on higher side of difficulty i believe.
Took a lot of time around 4 minutes.
plans impose so we need that instead of ing form.A and B are out.
impose and require are parallel.E is out.
between C and D ,D is better because cause and effect relationship is perfect in D i.e require doctors to see more patients , spending less time with each.

Kindly share any other way of attempting this question.
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26 Sep 2010, 17:10
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suchoudh wrote:
Ok, lets compare choices D and E.

lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending less time with each.
or
lower- end insurance plans that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less time with each.

How do you decide whether the participial modifier in E modifies "insurance plans" (i.e. illogical conclusion that insurance plans are spending less time) but D does not do so.

because in D the "spending less time with each" can be a result of the "require doctors to see more patients" ie the doctors are the ones who spend less time with each pationes since they are the ones next to the "spe4nding less time" clause.....
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15 Oct 2013, 05:28
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took 6 mins and selected E : (... @ramananda can u pls explain. U are like my teacher now : )

The thing with using verb-ing modifiers is that they will make the clause dependent on the outcome of previous clause or vice versa. Here "doctors have to see more patients" not because of stricter limits on medical services but, E leads you to believe that that is the reason , whereas option D uses and which makes the relationship independent. The clause at the end; however, is dependent on or is an outcome of the previous clause. You can say that because doctors have to see more patients they have to spend less time with each, Hence verb-ing form here is correct.
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20 Jan 2016, 23:16
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Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

The first observation is that a comma does not precede the ‘ing’ modifier imposing in this case. Therefore, any discussion relating it to the rules that pertain to an adverbial modifier is futile. Imposing without a comma before is an adjectival modifier in this case and modifies the plans. Similarly, the restrictive pronoun ‘that’ also refers to plans and is correct. In fact, the split of using ‘posing’ and ‘that impose’ is a pseudo split to divert the focus.
What decides the correct choice is the rest of the sentence, and the logic of the meaning expressed there.
The intent of the topic is that the plans impose two restrictions. 1. Limits on medical services (maybe such as fewer number of diseases covered or financial limits on the amount to be given) and 2. That doctors see more patients by spending less time with each patient. Spending less time with patients is a means to achieve the objective of seeing more patients and not yet another objective. So ‘spending’ should be given a modifier status and not the main verb role. Additionally, when you give a verb status to the factor of spending, it will mean that the plans either spend or do spending, which is illogical.

In the light of the above,
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend ------ and spend is wrong – ‘spend’ is given a verb status.

(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending – The modifier ‘requiring’ is wrong as it is one of the two main objectives; it has to be given a verb status.

(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend --- wrong – 1. ‘and is missed between services and require. 2. and spend is wrong as in A.

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending – This is correct because now spending is relegated to modifier status

(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending --- pushing the second factor of requiring to a modifier status as if it is a corollary of the stricter limits is wrong. Secondly and spending signifies that it is the plans which are spending

That is the logic of this beautiful question. .
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07 Sep 2009, 03:12
I would go with A.

It is parallel - 'enrolled and Spend' , 'imposing and requiring'
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07 Sep 2009, 09:03
IMO E
that impose... subordinate clause, requiring...and...spending parallel
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07 Sep 2009, 11:03
IMO E

to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans THAT impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending less time with each.

THAT refers to lower-end insurance plans
pariticiple phrase - requiring.....and spending...... modifies the verb phrase impose stricter limits.
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30 Sep 2009, 23:21
will go with D
this is a debatable Q
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04 Oct 2009, 16:08
Good question. D is not debatable OA.
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06 Oct 2009, 10:20
Option D is wrong. See the above link for the correct one.
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24 Sep 2010, 04:43
sreehari1250 wrote:
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

I choose "C" but it is incorrect please explain the correct answer

OA is D?

that impose stricter limits on medical services and (that) require doctors to see more patients, spending (less time with each.)

impose and require are parallel, but what's the subject of spending? It could be better to write see more patients while spending less time with each.

I picked A:
imposing...and requiring
to see... and spend
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24 Sep 2010, 10:02

low-paid-workers-78730-20.html
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24 Sep 2010, 10:25
Among lower- paid workers, union members are less likely than non union members to be enrolled in lower- end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend less time with each.

Separate out the choice in two groups - imposing and that impose. straight away "imposing" is out. We are left with C, D & E

Not parallel. ... insurance plans that - impose ........, require ......., and spend - impose this, require that and spend (C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend

insurance plans are only doing two things - impose stricter limits and require docs to see more patients (D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending

Requiring and spending might look parallel at first look, but look again. Stricter limits are requiring docs to see more patients (good). Stricter limits are spending less time with each (incorrect) (E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending
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24 Sep 2010, 16:15
Wrong use of "imposing", the use of "that" is need to add a clause to the sentence. Eliminate
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending

Note that "impose" and "require" should be parallel because that's what the insurance plan is doing. Eliminate:
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Doctors spending less time with each patient is a modifying phrase to the requirement to see more of them. "Spending" should be use. Eliminate
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend

Ans D

(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
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24 Sep 2010, 21:03
gsothee wrote:
(A) imposing stricter limits on medical services and requiring doctors to see more patients, and spend
(B) imposing stricter limits on medical services , requiring doctors to see more patients, and spending
(C) that impose stricter limits on medical services, require doctors to see more patients, and spend
(D) that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors to see more patients, spending
(E) that impose stricter limits on medical services, requiring doctors to see more patients and spending

Spending less time with each is a modifying clause that modifies doctors.
If we use and spend/spending above meaning is lost, and the sentence assumes the below form:-
1.Investment plans impose stricter limits on medical services
2.Investment plans require doctors to see more patients
3.Investment plans spend less time with each. completely nonsensical.

then how about requiring doctors to see more patients, and to spend...?

I think see more and spend are parallel.
Re: Low- paid workers   [#permalink] 24 Sep 2010, 21:03

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