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# Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide.

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Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 01:13
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Question Stats:

66% (01:13) correct 33% (02:29) wrong based on 3 sessions
Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. Not coincidentally, the earth's ozone layer has been continuously depleted throughout the last 50 years. Atmospheric ozone blocks UV-B, a type of ultraviolet radiation that is continuously produced by the sun, and which can damage genes. Because amphibians lack hair, hide or feathers to shield them, they are particularly vulnerable to UV-B radiations. In addition, their gelatinous eggs lack the protection of leathery or hard shells. Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.

Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT:

A. Of the various type of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.
B. Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are the population of non-amphibian species whose tissues and eggs have more natural protection from UV-B.
C. Atmospheric ozone have been significantly depleted above all the areas of the world in which Amphibian populations are declining.
D. The natural habitat of Amphibian has not become smaller over the past century.
E. Amphibian populations have declined continuously for the last 50 years.

OA post discussion.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 03:13
Answer should be A. It is neutral and does not provide any evidence to suggest that the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.

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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 03:51
As per the question we have to check for ans that either weaken or no effect.
Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. Not coincidentally, the earth's ozone layer has been continuously depleted throughout the last 50 years. Atmospheric ozone blocks UV-B, a type of ultraviolet radiation that is continuously produced by the sun, and which can damage genes. Because amphibians lack hair, hide or feathers to shield them, they are particularly vulnerable to UV-B radiations. In addition, their gelatinous eggs lack the protection of leathery or hard shells. Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.

Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT:

A. Of the various type of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.{they are vunarable to UV-B but it does not matter if there is any other type radiation that also harms }

B. Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are the population of non-amphibian species whose tissues and eggs have more natural protection from UV-B. -strengthen

C. Atmospheric ozone have been significantly depleted above all the areas of the world in which Amphibian populations are declining.--strengthen, though written in reverse order .check the verbs..have been already started in past aand going on;
are- currently going on

D. The natural habitat of Amphibian has not become smaller over the past century.Strengthen by removing alternative
cause

E. Amphibian populations have declined continuously for the last 50 years.-strengthen; years are matching

I think the ans is A. please let me know the OA.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 06:04
Expert's post
This was tough. really. Except question are always difficult due to the reverse of logic

Any way stay closu to the conclusion.

A talks about genes and UV-B, conclusion talks decline population.

A is the answer

can I have the source please ?
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 07:59
I choose A after 1'37''
Because, it is neutral and contains "only", the extreme word (such as "always", "most"...) which should be avoid.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 08:18
I'd go with D since A feels quite neutral, doesn't really add any information whereas D weakens it since their natural habitat hasn't shrunk. What's the OA?
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 08:48
Hi Caspar,

I think that the guys who have suggested A are likely to be correct.

Answer D, if it was true would eliminate a different reason for population declining. If there is less area where Amphibian's live, this could be the reason that their population is declining. SO because it's the same, another potential reason goes. Argument strengthened.

Answer A, is neutral. It does not provide anything to strengthen the argument (nor weaken - but that's not what we're asked for). It just tells us something about UV-B rays.

Hope that helps.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  19 Nov 2012, 09:57
OA is indeed A..

@carcass- Source is CR Power score bible.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide [#permalink]  21 Nov 2012, 23:28
sujit2k7 wrote:
As per the question we have to check for ans that either weaken or no effect.
Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. Not coincidentally, the earth's ozone layer has been continuously depleted throughout the last 50 years. Atmospheric ozone blocks UV-B, a type of ultraviolet radiation that is continuously produced by the sun, and which can damage genes. Because amphibians lack hair, hide or feathers to shield them, they are particularly vulnerable to UV-B radiations. In addition, their gelatinous eggs lack the protection of leathery or hard shells. Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.

Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT:

A. Of the various type of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.{they are vunarable to UV-B but it does not matter if there is any other type radiation that also harms }

B. Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are the population of non-amphibian species whose tissues and eggs have more natural protection from UV-B. -strengthen

C. Atmospheric ozone have been significantly depleted above all the areas of the world in which Amphibian populations are declining.--strengthen, though written in reverse order .check the verbs..have been already started in past aand going on;
are- currently going on

D. The natural habitat of Amphibian has not become smaller over the past century.Strengthen by removing alternative
cause

E. Amphibian populations have declined continuously for the last 50 years.-strengthen; years are matching

I think the ans is A. please let me know the OA.

I think it is D.
The passage says UV - B is hurting amphibians therefore their population is declining.
That too over past 50 years.
The EXCEPT wants an ans which says they are not getting hurt.
D says the habitat size has not gone down.
That too over last century i.e. 100yrs.
If the population is falling / declining then habitat should shrink.
This goes with the EXCEPT.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. [#permalink]  22 Nov 2012, 02:24
[quote="Vineetk"]Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. Not coincidentally, the earth's ozone layer has been continuously depleted throughout the last 50 years. Atmospheric ozone blocks UV-B, a type of ultraviolet radiation that is continuously produced by the sun, and which can damage genes. Because amphibians lack hair, hide or feathers to shield them, they are particularly vulnerable to UV-B radiations. In addition, their gelatinous eggs lack the protection of leathery or hard shells. Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.

Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT:

A. Of the various type of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.
B. Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are the population of non-amphibian species whose tissues and eggs have more natural protection from UV-B.
C. Atmospheric ozone have been significantly depleted above all the areas of the world in which Amphibian populations are declining.
D. The natural habitat of Amphibian has not become smaller over the past century.
E. Amphibian populations have declined continuously for the last 50 years.

Conclusion :-
Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.
We have to find an answer that weakens or has got no effect on the conclusion.

Of the various type of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.<<<It states that there are many other harmful radiations but UV - B is dangerous.>>>
I t means that UV - B is the primary cause. I think that it is the restatement of the conclusion and an option which is restatement of the conclusion can not be termed as strengthener.

The natural habitat of Amphibian has not become smaller over the past century.<<<Option D the habitat has not become smaller, it plugs one of the reason that the extinction of the amphibian is not because of the lack of habitat >>> hence it blocks another probable cause for the extinction of Amphibian.Therefore, it plays an important role in strengthening the argument by blocking one of the probable cause of the argument, thereby strengthening the cause mentioned in the argument.

Hence the answer is A
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. [#permalink]  25 Nov 2012, 04:43
Option A seems like telling us a particular "cause" of the "cause- depletion of ozone layer"

Similar to giving us information about effects of the effect, and in such instances, the answers are always wrong:
they are neither strengtheners nor weakeners.

(depletion of ozone layer ) CAUSES (decline in amphibian population)

cause = depletion of ozone layer; effect = decline of amphibian population
So, anything that tells us what causes the "cause" or what effect the so called "effect" has is not relevant to the issue at hand.

Pls let me know if anyone has a different opinion on what I have just posted.
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. [#permalink]  28 Nov 2012, 22:30
Vineetk wrote:
Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. Not coincidentally, the earth's ozone layer has been continuously depleted throughout the last 50 years. Atmospheric ozone blocks UV-B, a type of ultraviolet radiation that is continuously produced by the sun, and which can damage genes. Because amphibians lack hair, hide or feathers to shield them, they are particularly vulnerable to UV-B radiations. In addition, their gelatinous eggs lack the protection of leathery or hard shells. Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.

Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT:

A. Of the various type of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.
B. Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are the population of non-amphibian species whose tissues and eggs have more natural protection from UV-B.
C. Atmospheric ozone have been significantly depleted above all the areas of the world in which Amphibian populations are declining.
D. The natural habitat of Amphibian has not become smaller over the past century.
E. Amphibian populations have declined continuously for the last 50 years.

OA post discussion.

Ya i agree with A. As it seems to be restatement...

I have a doubt on C...

This argument is cause effect relation :
Cause --> Ozone depletion
Effect --> Amphibian population decrease

So Flow should be after cause effect is.....

But in C Effect ---> cause (where pop declining ozone is depleted)

This seems to be reverse... So this may weaken arugment...
y dont b this as answer????
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Re: Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide.   [#permalink] 28 Nov 2012, 22:30
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