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An Australian group named Action Council on Smoking and [#permalink]
09 Jan 2005, 08:54
An Australian group named Action Council on Smoking and Health (ACSH) has recently lobbied to make warnings on cigarette packets more graphic. The council proposed that striking visual photos of diseased organs should be put on at least 50% of outside packaging, in conjunction with health warnings outlining smoking hazards enumerated in a separate leaflet placed inside the cigarette packet. The ACSH claim that bland and ineffectual warnings like "Smoking is a health hazard" currently found on cigarette packets are not nearly sufficient.
Substituting those inadequate admonitions with explicit photos will provide a powerful visual stimulus to help smokers relinquish their habit. The current cautions on cigarette packets have little or no impact on smokers who have grown immune to the warnings that focus on abstract tobacco related risks and illnesses from which smokers can easily disassociate themselves. The proposed new tactics would concentrate on the perspective of the individual smoker through a demonstration of what is occurring in his body each time he reaches for a cigarette, rather than a generic cautionary word of advise.
The ACSH cited the results of recent studies conducted by psychologists at McKean University confirming that evidence related to one's own experience is more effective at influencing future behavior than a presentation of facts and figures. An further rationale for the addition of pictures to cigarette packages is the finding that smokers handle their packets 20-30 times a day, on average, thus, if graphic pictures on cigarette packets were introduced, smoker would have 20-30 chances to face the harsh reality of what damage they are doing to themselves each time they light up.
Even more essential than the pictures on the outside label, ACSH strongly advocate including warnings and helpful information in a leaflet inserted into the packet of cigarettes. Even an analgesic, ACSH adds, found in every bathroom cabinet has all possible side effects enumerated in the insert. How much more imperative is it then when the substance in question is tobacco, a dried weed that contains highly noxious nicotine that society still accepts even though it kills one of every two of its users.
Fundamentally, what is at stake here is consumer rights. Smokers should know what substances they are inhaling, and what damage they are inflicting to their bodies, though surprisingly, even today, many do not. For this reason alone, the recommendation for more graphic pictures and warnings on cigarette packets, which many seem excessive, is being seriously considered.
1. The author cites studies conducted at McKean University to account for why
(A) A presentation of facts and figures is more effective at influencing future behavior than evidence related to one's own experience.
(B) A presentation of facts and figures is less effective at influencing future behavior than evidence related to one's own experience.
(C) Evidence related to one's own experience has a more long-lasting effect than future behavior.
(D) The ACSH claim that graphic visual pictures of diseased organs would not be more effective than stating facts about the consequences to the body of long-term smoking.
(E) The ACSH claim that graphic visual pictures of diseased organs would not be less effective than stating facts about the consequences to the body of long-term smoking.
2. Which of the following, if true, would be most useful in supporting the claims made by the ACSH?
(A) There is firm evidence that information communicated in a textual format is more convincing than the same information conveyed in the form of visual depictions.
(B) There is firm evidence that information conveyed in the form of visual depictions is more convincing than the same information communicated in a textual format.
(C) A study of over 3000 individuals shows a statistically significant relationship between levels of nicotine in cigarettes and pulmonary damage.
(D) A study of over 3000 individuals shows a statistically significant relationship between smoking and pulmonary damage.
(E) A survey reveals that 79% of smokers look at their cigarette packages when taking out a cigarette.
HIGHLIGHT BELOW FOR OA:
1. E 2. B
Please explain why (B) is wrong in (1) and how do you pick answer for (2).
I did the same mistake as you did by picking B for the first question. After reading it again, I see that B simply tells us what the theory is, not why it is quoted. I don't quite agree with the wording in choise E, I admit it is a really tricky one for me.
As far as q2 goes... the ACSH is trying to add images to the writings on the packs, so if it is proven that images do indeed a better job at getting the point accross, then ACSH's claims will be supported.
However, I chose the ans as (B).. but after knowing the answer, I found (E) more promising. (E) could be a better answer because:
(a) (E) points out that explaination is cited by ACSH.
(b) After reading 3rd paragraph again, I found that (E) conveys same thing what is there in the paragraph.
However, I am not much comfertable with the wording of (E) which uses two -ve words ie not be less effective... We can think of this other way round as a trick to confuse us...