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An economic recession can result from a lowering of

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An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2010, 09:05
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35. An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.


a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2010, 11:51
I thought it was "E"

"A" through "C" have "investment, which". According to the rule "which" has to refer to the noun that it follows.("investments"cannot "cause cutbacks in consumer spending", while "drop" can).
I guess there are exceptions when "which" refers to the preceding noun phrase "drop in investment".
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2010, 11:56
I agree with you here, Fijisurf - that "which" next to "investment" bothers me about C...that's a pretty fatal error.

E looks pretty good - the only potential pitfall I see in that one is the "starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates." portion, in which "layoffs leading" may be slightly awkward compared to "layoffs that lead", but I don't think it's a fatal flaw at all, especially not compared to C's misuse of "which". I'd live and die with E on this one...do we know that C is the true official answer? Could it possibly be mistyped here?
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2010, 22:37
I remember this one from MGMAT

I think C is the answer as "which cause" relates back to the "rates" (singular-plural agreement). Other options use "which causes" leading to a potential argument that "causes" relates to "investment" before the comma - which can't be right.

When I re-tried the question just now I picked E as it really does sound the best. But C is not wrong but I guess "that lead" vs. use of "leading" in E is a little off-putting? But is there any technical reason why "leading" in E is wrong?
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2010, 22:48
actually re-reading the question, it comes down to: what causes even lower employment rates?
- Is it the circle of layoffs (as in C)?
- Is it the economic recession (as in E)? E seems to say:
An economic recession recession can result... causing X and starting Y leading to even lower employment rates (I think there should be a comma in this option right before "leading")

It really comes down to what the author had in mind when he wrote this sentence...
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 00:16
@Brian..
The source is Brutal SC questions . Even I picked up E and discarded C for similar reasons as yours . I have posted this question to resolve the doubts which are as follows.

1 . Can relative pronoun-Which , who , that etc- modify a noun which are not adjacent to it . For eg : "a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which" . Now I felt that which should modify investment but that didn't make any sense , so i dropped such options . But I have been seeing such structure where nouns which are actually to be modified by the relative pronouns are followed by prepositional phrase- drop in investment , which- and we tend to discard such options because the noun to be modified-drop in this case- is not adjacent . Are such structures grammatically sound .

2. What is this phrase causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates. modifying in option E . I thought that it is modifying the following phrase but I am not sure.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 00:21
@Brian...I have copy-pasted it from the source , so I don't think that question is wrongly posted , but I will still look into it .
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 08:27
gmat1011 wrote:
It really comes down to what the author had in mind when he wrote this sentence...


I hope real GMAT exam will not have ambiguity in meaning similar to this one.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 08:45
IMO it should be C.
D and E use 'that are' which is redundant as it's referring to 'falling employment rates'.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 11:50
The gist of the sentence lies in understanding that the cycle leads to itself.
Y is caused by x.Y causes something that leads to more Y.This is how inflation or any other cycle works.
In E , causing ... is a modifier that modifies Inflation.
In C, which clause modifies low employment rates.
This is What conforms to Y is caused by x.Y causes something that leads to more Y.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 19:37
C is wrong because if you remember in the MGMAT SC book, it explicitly states that when using ", which" whatever comes after "which" directly refers to whatever it is before the comma.

So in C, it is saying that "investments" causes "cutbacks in consumer.....blah blah blah" when it is really the "drop in investments" that causes this.

So, I go with E. clear & concise.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 21:44
vwjetty wrote:
C is wrong because if you remember in the MGMAT SC book, it explicitly states that when using ", which" whatever comes after "which" directly refers to whatever it is before the comma.

So in C, it is saying that "investments" causes "cutbacks in consumer.....blah blah blah" when it is really the "drop in investments" that causes this.

So, I go with E. clear & concise.

The Sc strategy guide says that the noun modifier should be as close as possible to what it modifies.
Give me the box of chocolates, which are swiss
give me the box of chocolates ,which is red in colour.
Can you point out out what does the which clause modify in the above 2 sentences
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 21:53
mundasingh123 wrote:
vwjetty wrote:
C is wrong because if you remember in the MGMAT SC book, it explicitly states that when using ", which" whatever comes after "which" directly refers to whatever it is before the comma.

So in C, it is saying that "investments" causes "cutbacks in consumer.....blah blah blah" when it is really the "drop in investments" that causes this.

So, I go with E. clear & concise.

The Sc strategy guide says that the noun modifier should be as close as possible to what it modifies.
Give me the box of chocolates, which are swiss
give me the box of chocolates ,which is red in colour.
Can you point out out what does the which clause modify in the above 2 sentences


the first one modifies "chocolates" because you're using "are" and the only antecedent of that is the plural chocolates.

the second one modifies "box" because "is" is singular and the only singular antecedent you have in the sentence is "box"

I hope that helps. I'm not a pro like some of the folks on here. I'm just another GMAT kid that got a 25 on my verbal on my last take so I'm not that reputable haha.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 22:20
Check this out guys.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/an- ... t1071.html
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 22:24
This question is from an MGMAT CAT

The original question is as follows and the answer is C: (the "Brutal" SCs doc has changed the wording around - notice how the structure of C is different - and I am not sure if there is any answer from an authentic source for this modified question):

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a. a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

b a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

c. falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

d. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

e. falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.


Quick point about the 'touch' rule re use of "which" - based on my reading so far, it is NOT an absolute rule.

The garden of tulips, which is in my house, is pretty. ---> "which" here modifies the whole expression "garden of tulips" and not just tulips. So one can't blindly apply the 'touch' rule without looking at the context.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 22:30
Good catch @GMAT1011. I noticed the same difference from MGMAT's site. Answer choices have been modified in this thread.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 22:32
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rg1 wrote:
Good catch @GMAT1011. I noticed the same difference from MGMAT's site. Answer choices have been modified in this thread.

Who created Brutal SC.Are the Brutal Sc questions from MGMAT CATS/Gmat prep etc
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2010, 22:56
Raths wrote:
35. An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.


a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.


Indeed brutal because falling....causing....and starting...seem pretty logically parallel.
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 25 Nov 2010, 03:23
is it worth practicing BrutalSC . After so many misgivings by the stalwarts , I think I should drop the idea of continuing it . I was also thinking of doing 1000SC . Any suggestions for that...????
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Re: BrutalSC [#permalink] New post 25 Nov 2010, 03:30
Raths wrote:
is it worth practicing BrutalSC . After so many misgivings by the stalwarts , I think I should drop the idea of continuing it . I was also thinking of doing 1000SC . Any suggestions for that...????

I think you should ask an expert
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Re: BrutalSC   [#permalink] 25 Nov 2010, 03:30
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